A lateral deviation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is known as hallux valgus. This condition is often associated with a protrusion of the medial aspect of the first metatarsal head, also known as a bunion. A bunion is composed primarily of boney deposits and soft tissue thickening. Hallux valgus is seen much more frequently in females and has been associated with poorly fitting footwear. Hallux varus, a medial deviation of the metatarsophalangeal joint, is rare and can be a post surgical complication of fixing a hallux valgus.
Turf toe is a sprain of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that is commonly cause by hyperextension of the great toe. Symptoms include swelling, erythema, tenderness, and limited motion of the joint. A sprain can be caused by stretching the joint capsule, or a partial to complete tear of the metatarsophalangeal ligaments.
Severe tenderness, warmth, erythema, and swelling in the first metatarsophalangeal joint is a sign of gout or septic arthritis.
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