. Pseudotumorous Conditions. PORTNotes. In: OrthopaedicsOne - The Orthopaedic Knowledge Network. Created Feb 16, 2009 14:42. Last modified Nov 14, 2016 12:05 ver.28. Retrieved 2017-05-24, from http://www.orthopaedicsone.com/x/eQAjAQ.
- ± trauma hx
- True aneurysm contains all 3 layers (intima, media, adventitia) of arterial wall
- Etiologies: blunt trauma, connective tissue disorders, infection (mycotic), atherosclerotic, idiopathic
Arachnoid cysts (spinal meningeal cysts)
- Radicular pain, progressive weakness, scoliosis, recurrent UTI
- Type I: extradural cyst without spinal nerve root fibers
- Type II: extradural cysts with spinal nerve root fibers
- Type III: intradural cysts
- Tx: excision, fenestration, or shunting
- (Developmental with normal endothelial turnover)(hemangiomas are neoplastic with endothelial hyperplasia)
- Mulliken and Glowacki classification
- Predominant vessl found: venous, arterial, capillary, lymphatic, mixed
- High versus low flow
- Localized (involving a single tissue)
- Diffuse (involving >1 tissue)
- Recurrence after resection in up to 50%
- Partial resection may give some relief
- Bleeding has been reported to cause local neuropathy
- PIN palsy reported
Bone infarct (osteonecrosis, avascular necrosis)
Bone marrow edema syndrome
- Has been reported in large pelvic masses and increased intrapelvic pressure has been suggested as a cause
Brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism
- MRI induced by stimulation of post-surgical metallic particles reported
- Enlarged bursae may simulate tumor
- Bicipital bursa has been reported to cause PIN compressive sxs
- Ddx includes idiopathic, degenerative, spinal ankylosis, previous fusion, ankylosing spondylitis, DISH, juvenile-onset RA, Klippel-Feil syndrome, alkaptonuria, hemochromatosis, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposi-tion disease, acromegaly, hyperparathyroidism, amyloidosis, myositis ossificans progressiva
- Reported after compartment syndrome following trauma
- Interval from injury reported to be 10-64 yrs
- Long duration of enlarging mass
- Peripheral plaque-like calcification ± periosteal reaction
- Wound complications not unusual after biopsy or excision of the paste-like material
Charcot joint (neuropathic arthropathy)
- Painless enlargement and joint crepitus and distention
- Most common shoulder cause is cervical syrinx
- Radiographic signs of joint destruction
- Dislocation, fracture, fragmentation, heterotopic ossification, osseous debris
- Nonoperative tx (bracing, observation) most often recommended to maintain a functional arc of motion
- Operative tx of associated ulnar or radial compressive sxs reported
Congenital maldevelopment of an intervertebral disc
- Has been reported to simulate an intraosseous spinal tumor
- May have dystropic soft-tissue calcifications
Diabetic amyotrophy (Bruns-Garland syndrome)
- Pain attributed to ischemia of involved nerve
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH)(Forestier's disease)
- Diagnostic criteria
- Ossification anterolaterally along ³4 contiguous vertebrae
- Disc height preservation and no significant DJD changes
- No facet joint ankylosis; no joint erosions, sclerosis or intra-articular fusion
Dorsal defect of the patella (superolateral aspect of patella)
- Abdominal wall involvement (rectus abdominus) has been described, mimcking a soft tissue sarcoma
- Has been reported in the vastus lateralis
- Fluctuates with monthly cycles
- Edematous, indurated skin and soft tissues
- ± associated joint contracture
- Hypergammaglobulinemia, ? ESR, peripheral eosinophilia
- Thickened, edematous fascia with infiltration of mononuclear cells
- Judicious surgical management + prednisolone
- Nodular-cystic fat necrosis described related to trauma and subsequent rapid vascular insufficiency
Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia
- Tibia vara (9-28 months at presentation) that spontaneously corrects
- Fibrocartilaginous tissue at a medial tibial metaphyseal cortical defect with surrounding sclerosis
Glial heterotopia (heterotopic neural rest)
- Brain tissue occurring outside the cranial vault has been reported on the chest wall, paraspinal region
- (From gossypion [Latin] = cotton), cotton balloma
- Retained surgical sponge with development of an aseptic granuloma
- Reported after up to 50 yrs!
Gout, tophaceous (tophi)
- Fanconi's anemia
- Thalassemia (Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia)
- Extramedullary hematopoiesis in Thalassemia Intermedia
- Liver, spleen, lymph node, paravertebral, intrathoracic, pelvic locations
- Incidence in up to 20% of pts
- Peak age incidence 21-30 yrs
- Paraspinal location occurs in 11-15% of cases
- 80% asymptomatic
- Can present as tumor-like masses
- M:F = 5:1
- Extrusion of hematopoietic tissue through thinned trabeculae
- Spread through intercostal veins
- Spread from adjoining ribs
- Active stage
- Isointense in both T1 and T2
- Inactive stage
- Hypointense or hyperintense in both T1 and T2
- Active stage
- Hypervascular so think of bleeding complications
- Blood transfusion
- Target Hgb of at least 10 mg/dl
- 10-30 Gy reported
- Monotherapy with 50% excellent response within 5-7 days
- High recurrence rate of 19-37%
- Used in combination with surgery/hydroxyurea
- Surgical decompression
- Laminectomy when epidural involvement and neurological compromise
- Bleeding and subsequent inadequate decompression a problem
- Promotes fetal Hgb production
- Used when there is no urgency in management
- Blood transfusion
- Extramedullary hematopoiesis in Thalassemia Intermedia
- Sickle cell disease
- Has been reported to spontaneously regress
- ± hx of anticoagulation
- ± compressive neuropathy
- Hip pain reported from psoas hematoma
- Tumors may masquerade as hematoma resulting in a significant diagnostic delay
- Absence of subcutaneous ecchymosis in the majority of cases is an important clue of a malignant dx
Lumbar hernia (Grynfeltt-Lesshaft hernia)
- May simulate paraspinal mass
Hydatic (echinococcal) cyst
Hypertrophy/pseudohypertrophy of an extremity
- Has been reported with chronic radiculopathy (neurogenic hypertrophy)
Idiopathic diabetic muscle infarction
- May present with a mass and MRI findings suggestive of sarcoma
- Histologic appearance includes hemorrhagic necrosis, lymphocytic infiltration
- With onychodystrophic changes and painful "periungual tumors" ± associated lucent distal phalangeal changes (X-linked dominant)
Infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey's disease)
- Self-limiting disease of infancy/early childhood
- 3/1000 pts < 6 mos of age
- Diffuse polyostotic periosteal reactions, esp mandible, tibia, clavicle, ulna
- Has been reported in twins
- Menkes syndrome
- Engelmann-Camurati disease
- Congenital syphilis
- Battered child syndrome
- Hypervitaminosis A
- Iatrogenic from prostaglandin Rx
Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia
- 3 forms:
- Found inside thrombosed vessels
- Associated with vascular tumors or malformations
- Arising within a hematoma (post-trauma or surgery)
- Rare firm mass, commonly occurring in the hand, probably resulting from an alteration in thrombosis (exaggerated attempt at thrombus recanalization mediated by an autocrine loop of endothelial basic fibroblast growth factor)
- ± overlying bluish/reddish discoloration of the skin
- Important to distinguish from angiosarcoma (florid intravascular endothelial proliferation)
- Has been misdescribed as a hemangioendothelioma
- Occurs in morbidly obese adults (mean pt weight 186 kg)
- Most occur in thigh but also in lower leg
- Misdiagnosis as liposarcoma or angiosarcoma
- Radiopaque particles in subcutaneous tissue reported having entered through a cut after topical exposure
- Surgical removal of particles is necessary
- Serum mercury level
- Penicillamine 10 mg/kg TID for systemic toxicity
- (Focal myositis, focal interstitial polymyositis, interstitial nodular myositis, focal nodular myositis)
- Unknown etiology
- Enlarged mobile mass, typically unilateral and limited to a single muscle group
- Duration of sxs: 2 wks - 3 yrs
- Leg (38%), thigh (23%)
- Rare locations: triceps, EDB, brachioradialis, rectus abdominus
- Constitutional findings in up to 11%: fever, malaise, skin rash, generalized muscle dysfunction
- ± ?? CK (24%), ESR (26%)
- CT/MRI: irregular enlargement with no discrete mass, poorly defined fatty infiltration, inflammation, edema
- Bx: inflammatory infiltrates (seen along endomysial sheaths mostly of small mature T-lymphocytes and macrophages) with variation in fiber size; randomly distributed necrotic cells with regenerative attempts
- Tx: NSAIDs; surgical resection has been reported; may progress to polymyositis
- ?? CK or ESR, multiple nodules, limb atrophy may indicate risk for recurrence or progression to multifocal inflammatory myopathy
Necrosis of muscle
- Isolated brachialis muscle necrosis reported after exercise
- Types: preacromion, mesoacromion, meta-acromion in ascending order of size may be confused with tumor
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD)
- Particle-induced bone resorption
- Wear debris-challenged osteoblasts produce PGE2, IL-6: activators of osteoclasts
- They also produce IL-9 and MCP-1: chemotactic factors for leukocytes
- ± familial hx
Postsurgical ossified extradural cyst
- Pseudosarcomatous lesion
- Painful rapidly growing mass
- ± hx of trauma
- MRI shows an ill-defined mass
- ? signal intensity on T1-weighted images
- ? signal intensity on T2-weighted images
- Giant ganglion-cell-like cells (+ for vimentin and smooth muscle actin) admixed with spindle cells
- Mitoses common
- ± focal calcification
- Etiologies: penetrating trauma or fx, unusually blunt trauma
- MRI with ? signal on T1- and T2-weighted images due to flow void
Pseudocysts of bone
- Humeral pseudocyst
- Lucency of the humeral head adjacent to the greater tuberosity, a normal variant
- External rotation of the femoral shaft results in an appearance similar to that of a pathologic fx of the femoral neck
Pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy
- Diffuse periostitis of long bones
- Pulmonary tumor cause
- Bronchogenic carcinoma (most common)
- Metastatic osteosarcoma to the lung has been a reported cause
- Non-pulmonary causes
- Has been reported with an aortic, axillo-femoral, and axillo-axillary graft infection
- Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
- Venous stasis
- Idiopathic periosteal hyperostosis with dysproteinemia (Goldbloom's syndrome)
Reaction to polylevolactic acid fracture fixation
- Cutaneous vascular proliferation presenting as multifocal erythematous macules, purpuric papules, ecchymoses, purpuric plaques ± ulceration
- Intravascular proliferation of endothelial cells
- Underlying coexistent systemic diseases: renal disease, valvular cardiac disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, glioblas-toma multiforme, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica
- Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, with rare solitary or multiple bone lesions (8%) reported
- Lucent lesion(s) ± surrounding sclerosis
- Fever, leucocytosis, ? ESR, hypergammaglobulinemia, lymphadenopathy
- Histiocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, no eosinophils
- DDx includes histiocytosis X and osteomyelitis
- Bone pain (70%), chronic nonpruritic urticaria, monoclonal immunoglobulin M gammopathy
- ?? ESR (up to 101mm/hr reported)
- ? CRP
- ? WBC with neutrophilia
- ? uptake on bone scan (40%)
- ± periosteal reactions on plain radiographs
- + anti-interleukin-1 autoantibodies
- MRI: marrow infiltration, ? T1-weighted signal, ? T2-weighted signal
- No observable bx abnormality of involved bones
- DDx: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, skin lesions)
- Tx: corticosteroids
Sclerosing extramedullary hematopoietic tumor
- Myelofibrosis, anemia, and soft tissue masses
- Encapsulated yellow-tan nodular growth with bizarre giant cells in prominent dense fibrous stroma
- + factor VIII staining of the atypical giant cells
- + CD43
Stress-induced osteolysis of the distal clavicle
- (See also Chapter 11)
- Transverse sclerotic line
- Affects 0.96-64% of military recruits
? alk? (37.6 vs 26.2 units/L)
? osteocalcin (10.8 vs 8.8 ng/mL)
? 25-OH vitamin D (25.3 vs 29.8 ng/mL)
- Bilateral stress fxs activity related
- Femur: track, inline skating, competitive equestrian athletes
- Insufficiency fx: due to normal stresses upon abnormal bone
- Fatigue fx: due to abnormal forces applied to normal bone
- Sites of involvement depend on diagnostic studies
- Bone scan:
- 49.1% tibia, 25.3% tarsals, 8.8% MTs, 72.% femur, 6.6% fibula, 1.6% pelvis, 0.9% sesamoids, 0.6% back
- 16.6% bilateral
- 35.2% MTs, 28% calcaneus, 24% tibia, 5.6% ribs, 3.2% femur, 3.2% fibula, 0.4% spine, 0.4% pubic ramus
- Radiologic features
- X-ray: normal to graying of cortex, fluffy or subtle periosteal reaction, fx, transverse or curvilinear sclerosis, multiple transverse lucencies, callus, cortical thickening
- Bone scan: ? uptake, intensity depens of grade of stress injury
- MRI: periosteal edema, bone marrow edema, fx line
- Histologic features
- First stage: within hours to days; hematoma
- Second stage: within 48 hours; inflammation characterized by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macro-
phages, mast cells; osteoclasts begin removing c\necrotic bone
- Third stage: 2-12 days; early granulation tissue formation with fibroblasts, initial collagen depostion; ? vascularity
- Fourth stage: 1 wk to several months; soft callus; ? vascularity; proliferation of osteoblasts in cambium layer of periosteium (incipient periosteal new bone formation); external (surface) and internal (marrow) callus
- Fifth stage: following 3-4 wks hard bony callus develops; bone forming by both membranous (periosteal) and endochondral ossification; matrix production is predominant with less evidence of inflamma-tion & vascularity
- Sixth stage: several months; prolonged period of bone remodeling converting early stage of woven bone to more mature lamellar bone; "secondary" callus; intense osteoblast and osteoclast activity
- Most often adjacent to silicone or metal prosthesis
- May mimic tenosynovial giant cell tumor (previously known as pigmented villonodular synovitis)
- Subchondral osteolysis
Tuberous sclerosis (Bourneville-Pringle syndrome)
- Triad: epilepsy (60-80%), mental retardation, skin lesions (hamartomas)(adenoma sebaceum (80-90%), shagreen patches, periungual fibromas, hypopigmented macules)
- 1/6-10,000 incidence
- Two genes involved: TSC1 (9q34) and TSC2 (16p13)
- Giant cell astrocytomas
- Renal angiomyolipomas (may present with abdominal mass)
- Cardiac rhabdomyomas
- Lung involvement in < 1%
- Multiple sclerotic or radiolucent skeletal lesions (mimick metastases)
- MRI has been used to identify tumors in brain and cardiac locations in early gestation
- Traumatic injury to periosteum, usually in the border digits resulting in an exostosis
- Familial hypercholesterolemia
- Affects LDL receptor gene
- ? LDL, ? serum cholesterol
- Premature coronary artery disease
- Incidence reportedly 1/500
- Complete excision may not be possible (because of intertwining with the involved tendons or NV structures)
- 60% recurrence rate
- Extensor tendons involved in 90%
- DDx: GCTTS, lipoma, dermatofibroma, rheumatoid nodule, gouty tophi, keratogenous cysts, sarcomas with xanthomatous change
- US: hypoechoic nodules or heterogeneous echo pattern
- MRI: heterogeneous signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images, hyperintense to involved tendon
- Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis
- Autosomal recessive lipid-storage disease
- Bilateral Achilles tendon xanthoma
- Bilateral cataract formation
- Progressive neurological dysfunction
- Pyramidal tract signs, cerebellar ataxia, cognitive impairment, peripheral neuropathy
- Osteoporosis with ? risk of fx
- Mutation in the sterol 27-hydroxylas (CYP27) gene
- Oxidizes side chain of cholesterol for the formation of bile acids
- Deficiency results in bile acid synthesis blockage and build up of bile acid intermediates
- Leads to ? production of cholestanol
- Tx with bile acid replacement therapy, ursodiol (ursodeoxycholic acid)
- Tx with Chenix (chenodeoxycholic acid) to reduce cholestanol levels
Aboulafia AJ, Monson DK, Kennon RE: Clinical and radiological aspects of idiopathic diabetic muscle infarction: rational approach to diagnosis and treatment. J Bone Joint Surg 81B:323-6,1999.
Adeniran A, Townsend PL, Peachey RD: Incontinentia pigmenti (Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome) manifesting as painful periungual and subungual tumours. J Hand Surg 18B:667-9,1993.
Akisue T, Matsumoto K, Tsumura N, Fujita I, Yamamoto T, Yoshiya S: Bone marrow edema syndrome associated with uterine myomaA a case report. Clin Orthop 409:151-7,2003.
Akune T, Ogala N, Seichi A, Ohnishi I, Nakamura K, Kawaguchi H: Insulin secretory response is positively associated with the extent of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. J Bone Joint Surg 83A:1537-44,2001.
Al-Abassi A, Murad BA: Presacral extramedullary hematopoiesis: A diagnostic confusion concerning a rare presentation. Med Princ Pract 2005;14:358-62.
Allegramza A, Barbareschi M, Solero CL, Fornari M, Lasio G: Primary lymphohistiocytic tumour of bone: a primary osseous localization of Rosai-Dorfman disease. Histopathology 18:83-6,1991.
Allman RM, Brower AC, Kotlyarov EB: Neuropathic bone and joint disease. Radiol Clin North Am 26:1373-81,1988.
Alpert SW, Koval KJ, Zuckerman JD: Neuropathic arthropathy: review of current knowledge. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 4:100-8,1996.
Alzagatiti BI, Bertorini TE, Horner LH, Maccarino VS, O'Brien T: Focal myositis presenting with radial nerve palsy. Muscle Nerve 22:956-59,1999.
Anderson MW, Greenspan A: Stress fractures. Radiology 199:1-12,1996.
Ankarath S, Campbell P: Psoas hematoma presenting as hip pain. Orthopedics 24:689-90,2001.
Axe MJ, McClain EJ: Complete involvement of the ulnar nerve secondary to an ulnar artery aneurysm. A case report. Am J Sports Med 14:178-80,1986.
Balleyguier C, Chapron C, Chopin N, Helenon O, Menu Y: Abdominal wall and surgical scar endometriosis: results of magnetic resonance imaging. Gynecol Obstet Invest 55:220-4,2003.
Baruch A: False aneurysm of the digital artery. Hand 9:195-7,1977.
Basu PA, Kesani AK, Stacy GS, Peabody TD: Endometriosis of the vastus lateralis muscle. Skeletal Radiol 35:595-8,2006.
Baur A, Stabler A, Bartl R, Lamerz R, Scheidler J, Reiser M: MRS gadolinium enhancement of bone marrow: age-related changes in normals and in diffuse neoplastic infiltration. Skeletal Radiol 26:414-8,1997.
Bazzi J, Dimar JR, Glassman SD: Acute calcific discitis in adults. Am J Orthop 31:141-5,2002.
Behbahani A, Arkader A, Golden JA, Dormans JP: Painless unilateral calf mass in a 14-year-old girl. Clin Orthop 460:263-8,2006.
Belanger TA, Rowe DE: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: musculoskeletal manifestations. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 9:258-67,2001.
Bell SN, Campbell PE, Cole WG, Menelaus MB: Tibia vara caused by focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia: three case reports. J Bone Joint Surg 67B:780-4,1985.
Bennell KL, Malcolm SA, Thomas SA, : Risk factors for stress fractures in track and field athletes. A 12-month prospective study. Am J Sports Med 24:810-8,1996.
Berginer VM, Shany S, Alkalay D, Berginer J, Dekel S, Salen G, Tint GS, Gazit D: Osteoporosis and increased bone fractures in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Metabolism 42:69-74,1993.
Blair WF, Hanley SR: Stress fracture of the proximal fibula. Am J Sports Med 8:212-3,1980.
Blanco RG, Parithivel VS, Shah AK, Gumbs MA, Schein M, Gerst PH: Abdominal wll endometriomas. AM J Surg 185:596-8,2003.
Boachie-Adjei O, Bullough PG: Incidence of ankylosing hyperostosis of the spine (Forestier's disease) at autopsy. Spine 12:739-43,1987.
Bos RR, Rosema FR, Boering G, : Degradation of and tissue reaction to biodegradable poly(L-lactide) for use as internal fixation for fractures: a study in rats. Biomaterials 12:32-6,1991.
Bostman OM, Pihlajamaki HK, Partio EK, Rokkanen PU: Clinical biocompatability and degradation of polylevolactide screws in the ankle. Clin Orthop 320:101-9,1995..
Bostman O, Hirvensalo E, Makinen J, Rokkanen P: Foreign-body reactions to fracture fixation implants of biodegradable synthetic polymers. J Bone Joint Surg 72B:592-6,1990.
Bostman OM: Absorbable implants for the fixation of fractures. J Bone Joint Surg 73A:148-53,1991.
Bostman OM: Intense granulomatous inflammatory lesions associated with absorbable internal fixation devices made of polyglycolide in ankle fractrues. Clin Orthop Relat Res 278:193-9,1992.
Bostman OM: Osteolytic changes accompanying degradation of absorbable fracture fixation implants. J Bone Joint Surg 73B:679-82,1991.
Bouwes Bavinck JN, Vermeer BJ, Gevers Leuven JA, Koopman BJ, Wolthers BG: Capillary gas chromatography of urine samples in diagnosing cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Arch Dermatol 122:1269-72,1986.
Boxt LM, Levin DC, Fellows KE: Direct puncture angiography in congenital venous malformations. AJR 140:135-6,1983.
Bradish CF, Davies SJM, Malone M: Tibia vara due to focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia. J Bone Joint Surg 70B:106-8,1988.
Broder MS, Worrell RV, Shafi NQ: Cystic degeneration and calcification following ischemic paralysis of the leg. Clin Orthop 122:193-5,1977.
Brodsky JW, Beischer AD, Anat D, East C, Soltero E, Tint S, Salen G, Silverman J: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: a rare cause of bilateral achilles tendon swelling and ataxia. J Bone Joint Surg 88A:1340-4,2006.
Brower AC, Allman RM: Pathogenesis of the neurotrophic joint: neurotraumatic vs. neurovascular. Radiology 139:349-54,1981.
Brunelli G, Vigasio A, Battiston B, Guizzi P, Brunelli f: Traumatic aneurysms of two proper digital arteries in the same patient: a case report. J Hand Surg 13B:345-7,1988.
Bude RO, Adler RS, Bassett DR: Diagnosis of Achilles tendon xanthoma in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: MR vs sonography. AJR 162:913-7,1994.
Bude RO, Adler RS, Bassett DR, Ideda DM, Rubin JM: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: detection of xanthomas in the Achilles tendon with US. Radiology 188:567-71,1993.
Bureau NJ, Roederer G: Sonography of Achilles tendon xanthomas in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. AJR 171:745-9,1998.
Burkus JK: Esophageal obstruction secondary to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Orthopedics 11:717-20,1988.
Burkus JD, Denis F: Hyperextension injuries of the thoracic spine in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: report of four cases. J Bone Joint Surg 76A:237-43,1994.
Burrows HJ: Fatigue fractures of the fibula. J Bone Joint Surg 30B:266-79,1948.
Butler ED, Hamill JP, Seipel RS, De Lormier AA: Tumors of the hand: a ten-year survey and report of 437 cases. Am J Surg 100:293-302.
Byers GE, Berquist TH: MR imaging techniques for soft-tissue lesions. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 3:563-76,1995.
Caldemeyer KS, Smith RR, Harris A, Williams T, Huang Y, Eckert GJ, Slemenda CW: Hematopoietic bone marrow hyperplasia: correlation of spinal MR findings, hematologic parameters, and bone mineral density in endurance athletes. Radiology 198:503-8,1996.
Campanacci M: Introduction. In Campanacci M (ed) Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors, 2nd Ed, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999, pp 1-70.
Campbell DA, Millner PA, Dreghorn CR: Primary bone tumours of the hand and wrist. J Hand Surg 20B:1:5-7,1995.
Carlson DW, Kim DH: Os acromiale. Am J Orthop 31:458, 2002.
Chakrabarti I, Watson JD, Dorrance H: Skin tumours of the hand. A 10-year review. J Hand Surg 18B:484-6,1993.
Chamay A: Mechanical and morphological aspects of experimental overload and fatigue in bone. J Biomech 3:263-70,1970.
Chang AE, Matory YL, Dwyer AJ, Hill SC, Girton ME, Steinberg SM, Knop RH, Frank JA, Hyams D, Doppman JL, : Magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography in the evaluation of soft tissue tumors of the extremities. Ann Surg 205:340-8,1987.
Chang WN, Lui CC: Failure in the treatment of long-standing osteoporosis in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. J Formos Med Assoc 96:225-7,1997.
Chason DP, Fleckenstein JL, Burns DK, Rojas G: Diabetic muscle infarction: radiologic evaluation. Skeletal Radiol 25:127-32,1996.
Chou LB, Malawer MM: Analysis of surgical treatment of 33 foot and ankle tumors. Foot Ankle Int 15:175-81,1994.
Chowchuen P, Resnick D: Stress fractures of the metatarsal heads. Skeletal Radiol 27:22-25,1998.
Clark CR, Bauer T: Routine pathological examination of operative specimens from primary total hip and total knee replacement: another look. (editorial) J Bone Joint Surg 82A:1529-30,2000.
Clohisy JC, Teitelbaum S, Chen S, Erdmann JM, Abu-Amer Y: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates polymethylmethacrylate particle-induced NF-kappaB activation in osteoclast precursor cells. J Orthop Res 20:174-81,2002.
Cohen JM, Weinreb JC, Redman HC: Arteriovenous malformations of the extremities: MR imaging. Radiology 158:475- ,1986.
Coindre JM, Trojani M, Contesso G, David M, Rouesse J, Bui NB, Bodaert A, De Mascarell, De Mascarel A, Gousset JF: Reproducibility of a histopathologic grading system for adult soft tissue sarcoma. Cancer 58:306-9,1986.
Cole JK, Holbrook JL: Focal mercury toxicity: a case report: J Hand Surg 19A:602-3,1994.
Coeman V, Sciot R, Van Breuseghem I: Case report. Rectus abdominis endometriosis: a report of two cases. Br J Radiol 78:68-71,2005.
Conrad EU III, Enneking WF: Common soft tissue tumors. Clin Symp 422-32,1990.
Cowin DJ, Powell GJ, Spanier SS, Makley JT, Scarborough MT: Thigh mass in a 73-year-old man. Clin Orthop 366:282-5,8-90,1999.
Crim JR, Seeger LL, Yao L, Chandnani V, Eckardt JJ: Diagnosis of soft-tissue masses with MR imaging: can benign masses be differentiated from malignant ones? Radiology 185:581-6,1992.
Cruysberg JR, Wevers RA, van Engelen BG, Pinckers A, van Spreeken A, Tolbroom JJ: Ocular and systemic manifestations of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Am J Ophthalmol 120:597-604,1995.
Culp JA, Hartigan BJ, Stern PJ: A brief note. Ask yourself, Why? A cost-effective look at routine pathologic examinantion of specimens using the trapezium. J Bone Joint Surg 83A:722-4,2001.
Czervionke LF, Berquist TH: Imaging of the spine. Techniques of IM imaging. Orthop Clin NA 28(4):583-616,1997.
Daffner RH, Pavlov H: Stress fractures: current concepts. AJR 159:245-52,1992.
Dalinka MK, Zlatkin MB, Chao P, : Use of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of bone and soft-tissue tumors. Radiol Clin North Am 28:461- ,1990.
Damron TA, Levinsohn EM, McQuail TM, Cohen H, Stadnick M, Rooney M: Idiopathic necrosis of skeletal muscle in patients who have diabetes: report of four cases and review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg 80A:262-7,1998.
Damron TA, Sim FH: Soft-tissue tumors about the knee. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 5:141-152,1997.
Davis SW, Levy LM, LeBihan DJ, Rajan S, Schellinger D: Sacral meningeal cysts: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiology 187:445-8,1993.
De Beuckeleer L, Vanhoenacker F, De Schepper A, Jr, Seynaeve P, De Schepper A: Hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy of the lower leg following chronic radiculopathy and neuropathy: imaging findings in two patients. Skeletal Radiol 28:229-32,1999.
Deirmengian CA, Lee S-GP, Jupiter JB: Neuropathic arthropathy of the elbow. A report of five cases. J Bone Joint Surg 83A:839-44,2001.
Delfaut EM, Beltran J, Johnson G, : Fat suppression in MR imaging: techniques and pitfalls. Radiographics 19:373- ,1999.
Demas BE, Heelan RT, Lane J, Marcove R, Hajdu S, Brennan MF: Soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities: comparison of MR and CT in determining the extent of disease. AJR 150:615-20,1988.
Desai A, Eymontt M, Alavi A, : 99mTc-MDP uptake in nonosseous lesions. Radiology 135:181- ,1980.
DeSanto LA, Goldstein HM, Murray JA, : Computed tomography in the evaluation of musculoskeletal neoplasms. Radiology 128:89- ,1978.
Deutsch AL, Mink JH, Rosenfelt FP, Waxman AD: Incidental detection of hematopoietic hyperplasia on routine knee MR imaging. AJR 152:333-6,1989.
Devas MB: Stress fractures in children. J Bone Joint Surg 45:528-41,1963.
Devas MB, Sweetnam R: Stress fractures of the fibula. J Bone Joint Surg 38B:818-29,1956.
De Waele S, Lecbuvet FE, Malghem J, Jamar F, Lambert M: Schnitzler's syndrome: an unusual case of bone pain with suggestive imaging features. AJR: 175:1325-7,2000.
DiFiori JP: Stress fracture of the proximal fibula in a young soccer player: a case report and review of the literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:925-8,1999.
Disler DG, McCauley TR, Ratner LM, : In-phase and out-of-phase imaging of bone marrow: prediction of neoplasia based on the detection of coexistant fat and water. AJR 169:1439- ,1997.
Disler DG, Miklic D: Imaging findings in tumors of the sacrum. AJR 173:1699-1706,1999.
Dooms GC, Hricak H, Sotlitto RA, : Lipomatous tumors with fatty component: MR imaging potential and comparison of MR and CT results. Radiology 157:479- ,1985.
Doppman JL, Pevsner P: Embolization of arteriovenous malformations by direct puncture. AJR 140:773-8,1983.
Doyle JR: Tendon xantoma: a physical manifestation of hyperlipidemia. J Hand Surg 13A:238-41,1988.
Durback MA, Edelstein G, Schumacher HR Jr: Abnormalities of the sacroiliac joints in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: demonstration by computed tomography. J Rheumatol 15:1506-11,1988.
Dussault RG, Kaplan PA, Roederer G: MR imaging of Achilles tendon in patients with familial hyperlipidemia: comparison with plain films, physical examination, and patinets with traumatic tendon lesions. AJR 164:403-7,1995.
Edelman RR, Mattle HP, Atkinson DH, : MR angiography AJR 154:937- ,1990.
Egund N, Ekelund L, Sako M, : CT of soft-tissue tumors. AJR 137:725- ,1981.
Ehara S, Khurana J, Kattapuram SV, Rosenberg AE, el-Khoury GY, Rosenthal DI: Osteolytic lesions of the patella. AJR 153:103-6,1989.
el-Jabbour JN, Bennett MH, Burke MM, Lessells A, O'Halloran A: Proliferative myositis. An immuno-histochemical and ultrastructural study. Am J Surg Pathol 15:654-9,1991.
Enzinger FM, Dulcey F: Proliferative myositis: report of thirty-three cases. Cancer 20:2213-23,1967.
Erlemann R, Reiser MF, Peters PE, : Musculoskeletal neoplasms: static and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology 171:767- ,1989.
Erlemann R, Vassalio P, Bongartz G, : Musculoskeletal neoplasms: fast low-angle shot MR imaging with and without Gd-DTPA. Radiology 176:489- ,1990.
Fahey JJ, Stark HH, Donovan WF, Drennan DB: Xanthoma of the Achilles tendon: seven cases with familial hyperbetalipoproteinemia. J Bone Joint Surg 55:1197-1211,1973.
Farmer KW, McFarland EG, Sonin A, Cosgarea AJ, Roehrig GJ: Case report: isolated necrosis of the brachialis muscle due to exercise. Orthopedics 25:682-4,2002.
Ferguson PC, Griffin AM, Bell RS: Primary patellar tumors. Clin Orthop 336:199-204,1997.
Finck EJ, Moore TM: Angiography for mass lesions of bone, joint, and soft tissue. Orthop Clin North Am 8:999- ,1977.
Finn HA, Simon MA, Martin WB, Darakjain H: Scintigraphy with gallium-67 citrate in staging of soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity. J Bone Joint Surg 69A:886-91,1987.
Firooznia H, Seliger G, Genieser NB, Barasch E: Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy in pulmonary metastases. Radiology 115:269-74,1975.
Flaisler F, F, Blin D, Asencio G, Lopez FM, Combe B: Focal myositis: a localized form of polymyositis? J ERheumatol 20:1414-6,1993.
Fleckenstein JL, Reimers CD: Inflammatory myopathies, radiologic evaluation. Radiol Clin North Am 34:427-39,1996.
Fletcher BD, Reddick WE, Taylor JS: Dynamic MR imaging of musculoskeletal neoplasms. Radiology 200:869- ,1995.
Fletcher RF, Gloster J: The lipids in xanthomata. J Clin Invest 43:2104-11,1964.
Fong Y, Coit DG, Woodruff JM, Brennan MF: Lymph node metastasis from soft tissue sarcoma in adults: analysis of data from a prospective database of 1772 sarcoma patients. Ann Surg 217:72-7,1993.
Fornage BD, Rifkin MD: Ultrasound examination of the hand and foot. Radiol Clin North Am 26:109- ,1988.
Fowler MR, Nathan CO, Abreo F: Synovial metaplasia, a specialized form of repair. A case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 126:727-30,2002.
Fredericson M, Gergman C, Hoffman KL, Dillingham MS: Tibial stress reaction in runners: correlation of clinical symptoms and scintigraphy with a new MRI grading system. Am J Sports Med 23:472-81,1995.
Fujimoto H, Murakami K, Ichikawa T, Matsubara T, Tsumurai Y, Masuda S, Terauchi M, Ozawa K, Nosaka K, Arimizu N: MRI of soft-tissue lesions: opposed-phase T2*-weighted gradient-echo images. J Comput Assist Tomogr 17:418-24,1993.
Galant J, Marti-Bonmati L, Soler R, Saez F, Lafuente J, Bonmati , Gonzales I: Grading of subcutaneous soft tissue tumors by means of their relationship with the superficial fascia on MR imaging. Skeletal Radiol 27:657-63,1998.
Gan KB: Tumoral calcinosis: a case report and review of the literature. Br J Plast Surg 35:177-80,1982.
Garber EK, Silver S: Pedal manifestations of DISH. Foot Ankle 3:12-6,1982.
Gardner DJ, Azouz EM: Solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions in children. Skeletal Radiol 17:497-504,1988.
Gerscovich EO, Greenspan A, Lehman WB: Idiopathic periosteal hyperostosis with dysproteinemia--Goldbloom's syndrome. Pediatr Radiol 20:208-11,1990.
Giladi M, Milgrom C, Simkin A, Danon Y: Stress fractures: identifiable risk factors. Am J Sports Med 19:647-52,1991.
Gitelis S, Wilkins R, Conrad EU, III: Benign bone tumors. J Bone Joint Surg 77A(11):1756-82,1995.
Givon V, Friedman E, Reiner A, Vered I, Finestone A, Shemer J: Stress fractures in the Israeli defense forces from 1995 to 1996. Clin Orthop 373:227-32,2000.
Glant TT, Jacobs JJ, Molnár G, : Bone resorption activity of particulate-stimulated macrophages. J Bone Miner Res 8:1071-9,1993.
Gleckner JF, Sundaram M: Raciologic case study. Orthopedics 22:776-7,80,1999.
Gocmen R, Kerimoglu U: An unusual appearance of traumatic fat necrosis: Floating fat balls. Eur J Radiol Extra 2008;66:e43-e45.
Goh JC, Mech AM, Lee EH, Ang EJ, Bayon P, Pho RW: Biomechanical study on the load-bearing characteristics of the fibula and the effects of fibular resection. Clin Orthop 279:223-8,1992.
Gomes AS: Embolization therapy of congenital arteriovenous malformations: use of alternate approaches. Radiology 190:191-8,1994.
Gomes AS, Mali WP, Oppenheim WL: Embolization therapy in the management of congenital arteriovenous malformations. Radiology 144:41-9,1982.
Goyal M, Malik A, Mishra NK, Chandra S, Gaikwad SB, Jain K: Congenital maldevelopment of intervertebral disc simulating a neurofibroma. Skeletal Radiol 27:388-91,1998.
Grace KL, Wilson YG, Collins CM, Kirwan JR, Baird RN: Focal myositis--a new presentation. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 19:90-1,2000.
Greaney R, Gerber F, Laughlin R, : Distribution and natural history of stress fractures in US Marine recruits. Radiology 146:339-46,1983.
Green DP: True and false traumatic aneurysms in the hand. J Bone Joint Surg 55A:120-8,1973.
Greenfield GB, Arrington JA, Kudryk BT: MRI of soft tissue tumors. Skeletal Radiol 22:7- ,1993.
Greenfield GB, Warren DL, Clark RA: MR imaging of periosteal and cortical changes of bone. Radiographics 11:611-23,1991.
Griffeth LK, Dehdoshti F, McGuire AH, McGuire DJ, Perry DJ, Moerlein SM, Siegel BA: PET evaluation of soft tissue masses with fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Radiology 182:185-94,1992.
Guillemin F, Mainard D, Rolland H, Delagoute JP: Antivitamin K prevents heterotopic ossification after hip arthroplasty in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: a retrospective study in 67 patients. Acta Orthop Scand 66:123-6,1995.
Haider R, Mhaidli H, Taher AT: Paraspinal extramedullary hematopoiesis in patients with thalassemia intermedia. Eur Spine J (2010) 19:871--878
Haim N, Shapiro-Feinberg M, Zissin R: Incisional endometriomas: CT findings. Emerg Radiol 11:162-3,2005.
Hall RA, Spiegel DA, Dormans JP, Meyer JS, Finn LS: Sternal mass in a 11-year-old boy. Clin Orthop 353:256-62,1998.
Haller J, Resnick D, Miller CW, Schilis JP, Kerr R, Bielecki D, Sartoris DJ, Gundry CR: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: diagnostic significance of radiographic abnormalities of the pelvis. Radiology 172:835-9,1989.
Hansen LB, Baekgaard N, Reske-Nielsen E: Focal myositis of the rectus abdominal muscles. Acta Chir Scand 151:77-80,1985.
Harkness J, Peters H: Tumoral calcinosis: a report of six cases. J Bone Joint Surg 49A:721- ,1967.
Harmath C, Demos TC, Lomasney L, Pinzur M: Radiologic case study. Stress fracture of the fifth metatarsal. Orthopedics 24:111, 204-8,2001.
Harwood CA, Cook MG, Mortimer PS: Tumoral calcinosis: an unusual cause of cutaneous calcification. Clin Exp Dermatol 21:163-6,1996.
Hastings DE, Macnab I, Lawson V: Neoplasms of the atlas and axis. Can J Surg 11:290-6,1968.
Hatzis N, Kaar TK, Wirth MA, Toro F, Rockwood CA Jr: Neuropathic arthropathy of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg 80A:1314-9,1998.
Hayam A, Mahoney DH, Hawkins HK, Steuber CP, Hurwitz R, Fembach DJ: Soft tissue sarcomas other than rhabdomyosarcoma in children. Med Pediatr Oncol 20:114-8,1992.
Heelan RT, Watson RC, Smith J: Computed tomography of lower extremity tumors. AJR 132:933-7,1979.
Heiken JP, Lee JKT, Smathers RL, Totty WG, Murphy WA: CT of benign soft-tissue masses of the extremities. AJR 142:575- ,1984.
Heffner RR, Jr: Armbrustmacher VW, Earle KM: Focal myositis. Cancer 40:301-6,1977.
Helms CA: Peudocysts of the humerus. AJR 131:287-92,1978.
Hensen JG, Van Breda Vriesman AC, Puylaert JB: Abdominal wall endometriosis: clinical presentation and imaging features with emphasis on sonography. AJR 186:616-20,2006.
Hermann G, Abdelwahab IF, Miller TT, Klein MJ, Lewis MM: Tumour and tumour-like conditions of the soft tissue: magnetic resonance imaging features differentiating benign from malignant masses. Br J Radiol 65:14- ,1992.
Hermann G, Rose JS: Computed tomography in bone and soft tissue pathology of the extremities. J Comput Assist Tomogr 3:58- ,1979.
Hermann G, Yeh HC, Lehr-James C, : Diagnosis of popliteal cysts: double-contrast arthrography and sonography. AJR 137:369- ,1981.
Hernandez RJ, Keim DR, Chenevert TL, Sullivan DB, Aisen AM: Fat suppressed magnetic resonance imaging of myositis. Radiology 182:217-9,1992.
Herzberg DL, Schreiber MH: Angiography in mass lesions of the extremities. AJR 111:541- ,1971.
Hinton A, Heinrich SD, Craver R: Idiopathic diabetic muscular infarction: the role of ultrasound, CT, MRI, and biopsy. Orthopedics 16:623-5,1993.
Ho A, Williams DM, Zelenock GB, Braunstein EM: Unilateral hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a patient with an infected axillary-axillary bypass graft. Radiology 162:573-4,1987.
Ho PK, Weiland AJ, McClinton MA, Wilgis EF: Aneurysms of the upper extremity. J Hand Surg 12A:39-46,1987.
House JH, Steubs J: Tumors of the hand. Minn Med 66:483-6,1983.
Hsu FI, Filippa DA, Castro-Malaspina H, : Extramedullary hematopoiesis mimicking metastatic lung carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg 66:1411-3,1998.
Hudson TM, Hamlin DJ, Enneking WF, Pettersson H: Magnetic resonance imaging of bone and soft-tissue tumors: early experience in 31 patients compared with computed tomography. Skeletal Radiol 13:134-46,1985.
Hudson TM, Hass G, Enneking WF, Hawkins IF Jr: Angiography in the management of musculoskeletal tumors. Surg Gynecol Obstet 141:11-21,1975.
Huff TN, Geiger XJ, Duffy GP, O'Connor MI: Endometrioma of the abdominal wall. Clin Orthop 463:221-4,2007.
Hunter JC, Johnston WH, Genant HK: Computed tomography evaluation of fatty tumors of the somatic soft tissues: clinical utility and radiologic-pathologic correlation. Skeletal Radiol 4:79-91,1979.
Hutt J, Sturley W, Jemec B. Massive localized lymphoedema. Ann Plast Surg. 2009 Sep;63(3):300-1. Pubmed
Hyder N, Shaw DL, Bollen SR: Myositis ossificans: calcification of the entire tibialis anterior after ischemic injury (compartment syndrome). J Bone Joint Surg 78B:318-9,1996.
Imaizumi S, Morita T, Ogose A, Hotta T, Kobayashi H, Ito T, Hirata Y: Soft tissue sarcoma mimicking chronic hematoma: value of magnetic resonance imaging in diffetrential diagnosis. J Orthop Sci 7:33-7,2002.
Ince A, Alam SM, Tariq SH, Moore TL, Sundaram M: Radiologic case study: myositis of the quadriceps muscle group including vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and rectus femoris. Orthopedics 24:22,77-8,2001.
Inoue T, Watanabe S, Masuda Y, Ono K, Urano M, Hijikata Y, Saito L, Masuda Y: Evaluation of blood flow patterns of true and false lumens in dissecting aneurysms using MR phase-contrast techniques. Clin Imaging 20:262-8,1996.
Iossifidis A, As'ad S, Sutaria PD: Aneurysm of the superficial palmar arch. J Bone Joint Surg 78A:1089-91,1996.
Jablons D, Steinberg SM, Roth J, Pittaluga S, Rosenberg SA, Pass HI: Metastasectomy for soft tissue sarcoma: further evidence for efficacy and prognostic indicators. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 97:695-705,1989.
Jacobs JJ, Urban RM, Wall J, Black J, Reid JD, Veneman L: Unusual foreign-body reaction to a failed total knee replacement: simulation of a sarcoma clinically and a sarcoid histologically. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg 77A:444-51,1995.
Jacobs LCDRJC: Aspiration cytology of proliferative myositis. A case report. Acta Cytol 39:535-8,1995.
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Pathology and Clinical Laboratory Services. Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois, Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 1996.
Janzen DL, Connell DG, Vaisler BJ: Calcific myonecrosis of the calf manifesting as an enlarging soft-tissue mass: imaging features. AJR 160:1072-4,1993.
Jelinek J, Kransdorf MJ: MR imaging of soft tissue masses: mass-like lesions that simulate neoplasms. Magn Reson Imaging Clin North Am 3:727- ,1995.
Jerabek SA, Shah SN, Urquhart AG: Diaphyseal stress fractures in an equestrian. Am J Orthop 35:334-5,2006.
Johnson JT: Neuropathic fractures and joint injuries. Pathogenesis and rationale of prevention and treatment. J Bone Joint Surg 49A:1-30,1967.
Jones DM, Marsh JL, Nopola JV, Jacobs JJ, Skipor AK, Urban RM, Gilbert JL, Buckwalter JA: Focal osteolysis at the junction of a modular stainless-steel femoral intramedullary nail. J Bone Joint Surg 83:537-48,2001.
Jordan RM, Mintz RD: Fatal reaction to gadopentetate dimeglumine. AJR 164:743-4,1995.
Kainberger F, Seidl G, Traindl O, Trattnig S, Breitenseher M, Schneider B, Gisinger C: Ultrasonography of the Achilles tendon in hypercholesterolemia. Acta Radiol 34:408-12,1993.
Kalden P, Krause T, Volk B, Peter HH, von Kempis J: Myositis of small foot muscles. Rheumatol Int 19:79-82,1998.
Karpman RR, Weinstein PR, Gall EP, Johnson PC: Lumbar spinal stenosis in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hypertrophy syndrome. Spine 7:598-603,1982.
Kasser JR, Kocher MS, Mininder S: Radiologic case study. Orthopedics 22:707,12-13,1999.
Katz DA, Scheinberg L, Horoupian DS, Salen G: Peripheral neuropathy in cerbrotendinous xanthomatosis. Arch Neurol 42:1008-10,1985.
Katzman B, Caligiuri A, Klein DM, Nicastri AD, Chen P: Recurrent intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia. J Hand Surg 22B:113-5,1997.
Kaufman JH, Cedermark BJ, Parthasaraathy KL, Didolkar MS, Bakshi SP: The values of 67Ga scintigraphy in soft-tissue sarcoma and chondrosarcoma. Radiology 123:131-4,1977.
Kazan S, Özdemïr O, Akyüz M, Tuncer R: Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts located anterior to the cervical spinal cord. Report of two cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 91:211-5,1999.
Kellie SJ, Pratt CB, Parham DM, Fleming ID, Meyer WH, Roo BN: Sarcomas (other than Ewing's) of the flat bones in children and adolescents. Cancer 65:1011-6,1990.
Kenan S, Abdelwahab IF, Klein MJ, Aaron A, Lewis MM: Case report 754: xantohoma of the Achilles tendon. Skeletal Radiol 21:471-3,1992.
Kern WH: Proliferative myositis: a pseudosarcomatous reaction to injury. Arch Pathol 69:209-16,1960.
Keschner MT, Bong MR, Wittig JC, Tejwani N: Pseudopathologic fracture of the neck of the femur. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg 86A:1534-7,2004.
Khaleghian R: Abdominal wall endometriosis: sonographic diagnosis. Australas Radiol 39:166-7,1995.
Khoury NJ, El-Khoury GY, Kathol MH: MRI diagnosis of diabetic muscle infarction: report of two cases. Skeletal Radiol 26:122-7,1997.
Kilcoyne RF, Richardson ML, Porter BA, Olson DO, Greenlee TK, Lanzer W: Magnetic resonance imaging of soft tissue masses. Clin Orthop 228:13-9,1988.
Kim DH, Lescault EJ: Aneurysm of the small saphenous vein presenting as a popliteal mass: a case report. Am J Orthop 28:304-5,1999.
Kim-Gavino C, Lomasney LM, Demos TC, Ryan D: Aggressive periosteal reaction and Codman's triangle marginal to an osteosarcoma of the distal femur. Orthopedics 29:382,459-63,2006.
King WD, Wiss DA, Ting A: Isolated fibular shaft fracture in a sprinter. Am J Sports Med 18:209-10,1990.
Kirchner PT, Simon MA: The clinical value of bone and gallium scintigraphy for soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities. J Bone Joint Surg 66A:319-27,1984.
Kiss ZS, Khan KM, Fuller PJ: Stress fractures of the tarsal navicular bone: CT findings in 55 cases. AJR 160:111-5,1993.
Kleinert HE, Burget GC, Morgan JA, Kutz JE, Atasoy E: Aneurysms of the hand. Arch Surg 106:554-7,1973.
Kleinman GM, Zelem JD, Sanders FJ: Proliferative myositis in a two-year-old child. Pediatr Pathol 7:71-5,1987.
Klemp P, Halland AM, Majoos FL: Musculoskeletal manifestations in hyperlipidemia: a controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 52:44-8,1993.
Knapp TP, Garrett WE Jr: Stress fractures: general concepts. Clinics in Sports Med 16:339-55,1997.
Kocakusak A, Arpinar E, Arikan S, Demirbag N, Tarlaci A, Kabaca C: Abdominal wall endometriosis: a diagnostic dilemma for surgeons. Med Princ Pract 14:434-7,2005.
Kocher MS, Rens G, Thornhill TS, Ready JE: Cost and effectiveness of routine pathological examination of operative specimens obtained during primary total hip and knee replacement in patients with osteoarthritis. J Bone Joint Surg 82A:1531-5,2000.
Komar NN, Gabrielsen TO, Holt JF: Roentgenographic appearance of lumbosacral spine and pelvis in tuberose sclerosis. Radiology 89:701-5,1967.
Kransdorf MJ: Benign soft-tissue tumors in a large referral population: distribution of diagnoses by age, sex, and location. AJR 164:395-402,1995.
Kransdorf MJ: Malignant soft-tissue tumors in a large referral population: distribution of diagnoses by age, sex, and location. AJR 164:129-34,1995.
Kransdorf MJ, Jelinek JS, Moser RP Jr: Imaging of soft tissue tumors. Radiol Clin North Am 31:359-72,1993.
Kransdorf MJ, Jelinek JS, Moser RP, Utz JA, Brower AC, Hudson TM, Berrey BH: Soft-tissue masses: diagnosis using MR imaging. AJR 153:541-7,1989.
Kransdorf MJ, McFarland DR, Moser RP Jr, Venbrux AC: Case report 649: arteriovenous malformation of the distal thigh with bone involvement. Skeletal Radiol 20:63-5,1991.
Kransdorf MJ, Jelinek JS, Moser Jr RP, Utz JA, Brower AC, Hudson TM, Berrey BH: Soft tissue masses: diagnosis using MR imaging. AJR 153:541-7,1989.
Kransdorf MJ, Moser RP Jr, Meis JM, Meyer CA: Fat containing soft tissue masses of the extremities. Radiographics 11:81-106,1991.
Kransdorf MJ, Moser RP Jr, Vinh TN, Aoki J, Cullaghan MD: Primary tumors of the patella. Skeletal Radiol 18:365-71,1989.
Kransdorf MJ, Murphey MD: Radiologic evaluation of soft-tissue masses: a current perspective. AJR 175:575-87,2000.
Kransdorf MJ, Temple HT, Sweet DE: Focal myositis. Skeletal Radiol 27:283-7,1998.
Kreicbergs A, Bauer HCF, Brosiö O, Lindholm J, Skoog L, Söderlund V: Cytological diagnosis of bone tumours. J Bone Joint Surg 78B:258-63,1996.
Kricun ME: Radiographic evaluation of solitary bone lesions. Orthop Clin North Am 14:39-64,1983.
Krinsky G, Rofsky NM, Weinreb JC: Nonspecificity of short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) as a technique of fat suppression: pitfalls in image interpretation. AJR 166:523-6,1996.
Kritzer RO, Rose JE: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis presenting with thoracic outlet syndrome and dysphagia. Neurosurgery 22(6 pt 1):1071-4,1988.
Kruth HS: Lipid deposition in human tendon xanthoma. Am J Pathol 121:311-5,1985.
Kuritzky A, Berginer VM, Korczyn AD: Peripheral neuropathy in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Neurology 29:880-1,1979.
Kuriyama M, Fujiyama J, Kubota R, Nakagawa M, Osame M: Osteoporosis and increased bone fractures in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Metabolism 42:1497-8,1993.
Kuriyama M, Fujiyama J, Yoshidome H, Takenaga S, Matsumuro K, Kasama T, Fukuda K, Kuramoto T, Hoshita T, Seyama Y, Okatu Y, Osame M: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: clinical and biochemical evaluation of eight patients and review of the literature. J Neurol Sci 102:225-32,1991.
Kuriyama M, Tokimura Y, Fujiyama J, Utatsu Y, Osame M: Teatment of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: effects of chemodeoxycholic acid, pravastatin, and combined use. J Neurol Sci 125:22-8,1994.
Kwon DS, Spevak MR, Fletcher K, Kleinman PK: Physiologic subperiosteal new bone formation: Prevalence, distribution, and thickness in neonates and infants. AJR 179:985-8,2002.
Lacroix H, Keeman JN: An unusual stress fracture of the fibula in a long distance runner. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 111:289-90,1992.
Lang P, Fritz R, Majumdar S, Vahlensieck M, Peterfy C, Genant HK: Hematopoietic bone marrow in the adult knee: spin-echo and opposed-phase gradient-echo MR imaging. Skeletal Radiol 22:95-103,1993.
Lafferty FW, Reynolds ES, Pearson OH: Tumoral calcinosis: a metabolic disease of obscure etiology. Am J Med 38:105-18,1965.
Lagergren C, Lindbom A: Angiography of peripheral tumors. Radiology 79:371- ,1962.
Lang P, Grampp S, Vahlensieck M, Johnston JO, Honda G, Rosenau W, Matthay KK, Peterfy C, Higgins CB, Genant HK, : Primary bone tumors: value of MR angiography for preoperative planning and monitoring response to chemotherapy. Am J Roentgenol 165:135-42,1995.
Larson RC, Sierra RJ, Sundaram M, Inwards C, Scully SP: Calcific myonecrosis: a unique presentation in the upper extremity. Skeletal Radiol ,2004.
Larsson S-E, Lorentzon R: The incidence of malignant primary bone tumours in relation to age, sex and site. A study of osteogenic sarcoma, chondrosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma diagnosed in Sweden from 1958 to 1968. J Bone Joint Surg 56B:534-40,1974.
Laufer L, Schulman H, Hertzanu Y: Vertebral pneumatocyst: a case report. Spine 21:389-91,1996.
Lauro GR, Kissel JT, Simon SR: Idiopathic muscular infarction in a diabetic patient: report of a case. J Bone Joint Surg 73A:301-4,1991.
Lawrence T, Moskal JT, Diduch DR: Analysis of routine histological evaluation of tissues removed during primary hip and knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 81A:926-31,1999.
Lazarides M, Lyberopoulos K, Tsurulas M, Dayantas J, Stringaris K: Contribution of the magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the diagnosis of a femoral false aneurysm. Int Angiol 13:168-9,1994.
Lecompte M, Blais G, Bisson G, Maynard B: Schnitzler's syndrome. Skeletal Radiol 27:294-6,1998.
Lee JK, Yao L: Stress fractures: MR imaging. Radiology 169:217-20,1988.
Lee KR, Cox GG, Neff JR, : Cystic masses of the knee: arthrographic and CT evaluation. AJR 148:329- ,1987.
Lee MH, Hazard S, Carpten JD, Yi S, Cohen J, Gerhardt GT, Salen G, Patel SB: Fine-mapping, mutation analyses, and structural mapping of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis in U. S. Pedigrees. J Lipid Res 42:159-69,2001.
Lehman RA Jr, Shah SA: Tension-sided femroal neck stress fracture in a skeletally immature patient. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg 86A:1292-5,2004.
Lehman TP, Belanger MJ, Pascale MS: Bilateral proximal third fibular stress fractures in an adolescent female track athlete. Orthopedics 25:329-32,2002.
Leroux JL, Legeron P, Moulinier L, : Stenosis of the lumbar spinal canal in vertebral ankylosing hyperostosis. Spine 17:1213-8,1992.
Letts M, Pang E, Simons J: Prostaglandin-induced neonatal periostitis. J Pediatr Orthop 14:309-13,1994.
Levere SM, Barsky SH, Meals RA: Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia: a neoplastic "actor" representing an exaggerated attempt at recanalization mediated by basic fibroblast growth factor. J Hand Surg 19A:559-64,1994.
Levin DC, Watson RC, Baltaxe HA: Arteriography in the diagnosis and management of acquired peripheral soft-tissue masses. Radiology 104:53- ,1972.
Levine E, Lee KR, Neff JR, : Comparison of computed tomography and other imaging modalities in the evaluation of musculoskcletal tumors. Radiolgoy 131:431- ,1979.
Levine E, Wetzel LH, Neff JR: MR imaging and CT of extrahepatic cavernous hemangioma. AJR 147:1299-1304,1986.
Lewin JR, Das SK, Blumenthal BI, D'Cruz C, Patel RB, Howell GE: Osseous pseudo tumor. The sole manifestation of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. Am J Clin Pathol 84:547-50,1985.
Liem MS, Leuven JA, Bloem JL, Schipper J: Magnetic resonance imaging of Achilles tendon xanthomas in familial hypercholesterolemia. Skeletal Radiol 21:453-7,1992.
Linscheid RL, Dahlin DC: Unusual lesions of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg 48A:1360-6,1966.
Lippmann HI, Goldin RR: Subcutaneous ossification of the legs and chronic venous insufficiency. Radiology 74:729-88,1960.
Lipton G, Riddle E, Grissom L, Fitru T, Marks H, Kumar SJ: An unusual cause of low-back pain in children. A report of two cases. J Bone Joint Surg 83A:1552-4,2001.
Littlejohn GO, Urowitz MB, Smythe HA, Keystone EC: Radiographic features of the hand in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH): comparison with normal subjects and acromegalic patients. Radiology 140:623-9,1981.
Lodwick GS: A systematic approach to the roentgen diagnosis of bone tumors. In Atlas of Tumor Radiology. Hodes PJ (Ed) Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers,1965.
Lodwick GS: Solitary malignant tumors of bone: the application of predictor variables in diagnosis. Semin Roentgenol 1:293-313,1966.
Lodwick GS, Wilson AJ, Farrell C, Virtama P, Smeltzer FM, Dittrich F: Estimating rate of growth in bone lesions: observer performance and error. Radiology 134:585-90,1980.
Lomasney LM, Demos TC, Francois C, Pangan A: Radiologic case study. Dermatomyositis with dystrophic soft-tissue calcifications. Orthopedics 27:191,241-4,2004.
Lucas JD, O'Doherty MJ, Wong JCH, Bingham JB, McKee PH, Fletcher CDM, Smith MA: Evaluation of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the management of soft-tissue sarcomas. J Bone Joint Surg 80B:441-7,1998.
Lundgren L, Kindblom LG, Willems J, Falkner U, Angervall L: Proliferative myositis and fasciitis: a light and electron microscopic, cytologic, DNA-cytometric and immunohistochemical study. APMIS 100:437-48,1992.
Lussier-Cacan S, Cantin M, Roy CC, Sniderman AD, Nestruck AC, Davignon J: Tendon xanthomas associated with cholestanolosis and hyperapobetalipoproteinemia. Clin Invest Med 9:94-9,1986.
Lyle HHM: Aneurism of the palmar arches with a report of an aneurism of the deep arch cured by excision. Ann Surg 80:347- ,1924.
Lyles KW, Laswey DL, Friedman NE, Lobaugh B: Correlations of serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone in tumoral calcinosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67:88-92,1988.
Ma LD, Frassica FJ, McCarthy EF, : Benign and malignant musculoskeletal masses: MR imaging differentiation with rim-to-center differential enhancement ratios. Radiology 202:739- ,1997.
Madewell JE, Ragsdale BD, Sweet DE: Radiologic and Pathologic Analysis of Solitary Bone Lesions. Part I: Internal Margins. Radiol. Clin. N. Amer. 19(4):715-748,1981.
Maguire JK Jr, Milford LW, Pitcock JA: Focal myositis in the hand. J Hand Surg 13A:140-2,1988.
Malisano LP, Hunter GA: Liquefaction and calcification of a chronic compartment syndrome of the lower limb. J Orthop Trauma 6:245-7,1992.
Manduch M, Oliveira AM, Nascimento AG, Folpe AL. Massive localised lymphoedema: a clinicopathological study of 22 cases and review of the literature. J Clin Pathol. 2009 Sep;62(9):808-11.
Margulis AR, Murphy TO: Arteriography in neoplasms of extremities. AJR 80:330- ,1958.
Martel W, Abell MR: Radiologic evaluation of soft tissue tumors. Cancer 32:352- ,1973.
Martinez-Leon JI, Sanchez-Guzman AR, Bohorquez-Sierra JC, Bohorquez-Sierra C, Rodriguez-Pinero M, Arribas-Aguilar FN: Subperiosteal new bone formation in association with vascular graft sepsis. J Vasc Surg 26:895-6,1997.
Matsui K, Yamada H, Chiba K, : Visualization of soft tissue malignancies by using 99mTc polyphosphate, pyrophosphate, and diphosphonate (99mTcP). J Nucl Med 14:632- ,1973.
Matsumoto K, Hukudo S, Ohta S, Ishizawa M, Chano T: Spontaneous regression of a hemophilic pseudotumor. Orthopedics 24:791-2,2001.
Matsusue Y, Hanafusa S, Yamamuro T, Shikinami Y, Ikada Y: Tissue reaction of bioabsorbable ultra high strength poly (L-lactide) rod. A long-term study in rabbits. Clin Orthop 317:246-53,1995.
McCarville MB, Kaste SC, Pappo AS: Soft-tissue malignancies in infancy. AJR 173:973-83,1999.
McComb EN, Neff JR, Johansson SL, Nelson M, Bridge JA: Chromosomal anomalies in a case of proliferative myositis. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 98:142-4,1997.
McIver JI, Scheithauer BW, Rydberg CH, Atkinson JL: Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as epidural hematoma: case report. Neurosurgery 49:447-9,2001.
McMenamin ME, Fletcher CDM: Reactive angioendotheliomatosis: a study of 15 cases demonstrating a wide clinicopathologic spectrum. Am J Surg Pathol 26:685-97,2002.
McPhee HR, Franklin CM: March fracture of the fibula in athletes. JAMA 131:574-6,1946.
Meiner V, Meiner Z, Reshef A, Bjorkhem I, Leitersdorf E: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: molecular diagnosis enables presymptomatic detection of a treatable disease. Neurology 44:288-90,1994.
Menendez LR, Fideler BM, Mirra J: Thallium-201 scanning for the evaluation of osteosarcoma and soft tissue sarcoma. A study of the evaluation and predictability of the histological response to chemotherapy. J Bone Joint Surg 75A:526-31,1993.
Mercuri M, Casadei R: Patellar tumors. Clin Orthop 389:35-46,2001.
Merkel KD, Erdmann JM, McHugh KP, : Tumor necrosis factor-? mediates orthopedic implant osteolysis. Am J Pathol 154:203-10,1999.
Meyer PR Jr: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in the cervical spine. Clin Orthop 359:49-57,1999.
Meyer JS, Hoffer FA, Barnes PD, : Biological classification of soft-tissue vascular anomalies: MR correlation. AJR 157:559- ,1991.
Meyer SA, Saltzman CL, Albright JP: Stress fractures of the foot and leg. Clin Sports Med 12:395-413,1993.
Middleton DS: Occupational aneurysm of the palmar arteries. Br J Surg 21:215-8,1933.
Mirowitz SA, Totty WG, Lee JKT: Characterization of musculoskeletal masses using dynamic Gd-DTPA enhanced spin-echo MRI. J Comput Assist Tomogr 16:120-5,1992.
Mirra JM, et al: Chapters 4 - 6. In Bone Tumors. Mirra JM (Ed). Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1989, pp 55 - 76.
Mitnick P, Goldfarb S, Slatopalsky E, : Calcium and phosphate metabolism in tumoral calcinosis. Ann Intern Med 92:484- ,1980.
Mody GM, Charles RW, Ranchod HA, Rubin DL: Cervical spine fracture in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. J Rheumatol 15:129-31,1988.
Monu JUV, De Smet AA: Dorsal defect of the left patella: case report 789. Skeletal Radiol 17:413-9,1988.
Moreno-Lugris C, Gonzalez-Gay MA, Sanchez-Andrade A, Blanco R, Basanta D, Ibanez D, Pulpeiro JR: Magnetic resonance imaging: a useful technique in the diagnosis and follow up of focal myositis. Ann Rheum Dis 55:856,1996.
Moser RP Jr, Parrish WM: Radiologic evaluation of soft tissue tumors. In Weiss SW, Goldblum Jr (eds) Soft Tissue Tumors, 4th Ed, Mosby, Philadelphia, 2001, pp 45-102.
Moskovic E, Fisher C, Westbury G, Parsons C: Focal myositis, a benign inflammatory pseudotumour: CT appearances. Br J Radiol 64:489-93,1991.
Moulton JS, Blebea JS, Dunco DM, Braley SE, Bisset GS III, Emery KH: MR imaging of soft-tissue masses: diagnostic efficacy and value of distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions. AJR 164:1191-9,1995.
Mulier S, Stas M, Delabie J, Lateur L, Gysen M, Dal Cin P, Robberecht C, De Wever I: Proliferative myositis in a child. Skeletal Radiol 28:703-9,1999.
Mulliken JB, Glowacki J: Hemangiomas and vascular malformation in infants and children: a classification based on endothelial characteristics. Plast Reconstr Surg 69:412-22,1982.
Murari TM, Callaghan JJ, Berrey BH, Jr, Sweet DE: Primary benign and malignant osseous neoplasms of the foot. Foot Ankle Int 10:68-80,1989.
Murphey MD, Andrews CL, Flemming DJ, Temple HT, Smith WS, Smirniotopoulos JG: From the archives of the AFIP: primary tumors of the spine--radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 16:1131-58,1996.
Myhre-Jensen O: A consecutive 7-year series of 1331 benign soft tissue tumors: clinicopathologic data--comparison with sarcomas. Acta Orthop Scand 52:287-93,1981.
Nabors MW, Pait TG, Byrd EB, Karim NO, Davis DO, Kobrine AI, Rizzoli HV: Updated assessment and current classification of spinal meningeal cysts. J Neurosurg 68:366-77,1988.
Nakamura T, Matsuzawa Y, Takemura K, Kubo M, Miki H, Tarui S: Combined treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid and pravastatin improves plasma cholestanol levels associated with marked regression of tendon xanthomas in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Metabolism 40:741-6,1991.
Newberg AH, Kalisher L: Case report: an unusual stress fracture in a jogger. J Trauma 18:816-7,1978.
Niggemann P, Krings T, Hans F, Thron A: Fifteen-year follow-up of a patient with beta thalassaemia and extramedullary haematopoietic tissue compressing the spinal cord. Neuroradiology 2005; 47:263-6.
Nunez-Heyo M, Gardner CL, Motta AO, Ashmead JW: Skeletal muscle infarction in diabetes: MR findings. J Computed Assist Tomogr 17:986-8,1993.
O'Flanagan SJ, Stack JP, McGee HMJ, Dervan P, Hurson B: Imaging of intramedullary tumour spread in osteosarcoma. A comparison of techniques. J Bone Joint Surg 73B:998-1001,1991.
Ogose A, Hotta T, Yamamura S, Shioya Y, Yazawa T: Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma mimicking traumatic hematoma. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 118:172-3,1998.
Ogose A, Sim FH, O'Connor MI, Unni KK: Bone tumors of the coracoid process of the scapula. Clin Orthop 358:205-14,1999.
O'Keefe RJ, O'Connell JX, Temple HT, Scully SP, Kattapuram SV, Springfield DS, Rosenberg AE, Mankin HJ: Calcific myonecrosis. A late sequelae to comprtment syndrome of the leg. Clin Orthop 318:205-13,1995.
O'Mara JW, Keeling J, Montgomery EA, : Primary lesions of the patella. Orthopedics 23:368-77,2000.
Oostveen JCM, van de Laar MAFJ, Tuynman FHB: Anterior atlantoaxial subluxation in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. J Rheumatol 23:1441-4,1996.
Orava S, Puranen J, Ala-Ketola L: Stress fractures caused by physical exercise. Acta Orthop Scand 49:19-27,1978.
Ostrowski ML, Spjut HJ: Lesions of the bones of the hands and feet. Am J Surg Pathol 21:676-90,1997.
Owns JC, Shiu MH, Smith R, Hajdu SI: Soft tissue sarcomas of the hand and foot. Cancer 55:2010- ,1985.
Paley D, Schwartz M, Cooper P, Harris WR, Levine AM: Fractures of the spine in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Clin Orthop 267:22-32,1991.
Panchbhavi VK, Hecox SE: All that is gas is not gas gangrene: mechanical spread of gas in the soft tissues. J Bone Joint Surg 88A:1345-8,2006.
Panicek DM, Gatsonis C, Rosenthal DI, Seeger LL, Huvos AG, Moore SG, Caudry DJ, Palmer WE, McNeil BJ: CT and MR imaging in the local staging of primary malignant musculoskeletal neoplasms: report of the Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group. Radiology 202:237-46,1997.
Papadopoulos ECh, Papagelopoulos PJ, Boscainos PJ, Paschaloglou D, Gandaifis ND, Kaseta M, Korres DS, Fragiadakis EG, Stamos K: Bone marrow edema syndrome. Orthopedics 24:69-75,2001.
Pasquel P, Salazar M, Marvan E: Proliferative myositis in an infant: report of a case with electron microscopic observations. Pediatr Pathol 8:545-51,1988.
Pastorino U, Valente M, Gasparini M, Azzarelli A, Santoro A, Tavecchio L, Casali P, Ravasi G: Lung resection for metastatic sarcomas: total survival from primary treatment. J Surg Oncol 40:275-80,1989.
Peabody TD, Simon MA: Principles of staging of soft-tissue sarcomas. Clin Orthop 289:19-31,1993.
Pearce JM: Charcot joints. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 58:680- ,1995.
Pearce WH, Rutherford RB, Whitehill TA, : Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging: its diagnostic value in patients with congenital vascular malformations of the limbs. J Vasc Surg 8:64- ,1988.
Peh WC: Stress fracture. Am J Orthop 29:572,2000.
Peh WCG: Humeral pseudocyst. Am J Orthop 32:569,2003.
Peh WCG, Muttarak M, Gilula LA: A 33-year-old woman with an abdominal mass and multiple bone lesions. Am J Orthop 28:473-5,1999.
Peh WCG, Trouong NP, Totty WG, : Pictorial review: magnetic resonance imaging of benign soft tissue masses of the hand and wrist. Clin Radiol 50:519- ,1995.
Pelto-Vasenius K, Hirvensalo E, Vasenius J, Rokkanen P: Osteolytic changes after polyglycolide pin fixation in chevron osteotomy. Foot Ankle Int 18:21-5,1997.
Petasnick JP, Turner DA, Charter JR, Gitelis S, Zacharias CE: Soft-tissue masses of the locomotor system: comparison of MR imaging with CT. Radiology 160:125-33,1986.
Petterson H, Gillespy T, Hamlin DJ, Enneking WF, Springfield DS, Andrew ER, Spanier S, Slone R: Primary musculoskeletal tumors: examination with MR imaging compared with conventional modalities. Radiology 164:237-47,1987.
Peynet J, Laurent A, De Liege P, Lecoz P, Gambert P, Legrand A, Mikol J, Warnet A: Cerbrotendinous xanthomatosis: treatments with simvastatin, lovastatin, and chenodeoxycholic acid in 3 siblings. Neurology 41:434-6,1991.
Picci P, Bacci G, Campanacci M, Gasparini M, Pilotti S, Cerasoli S, Bertoni F, Guerra A, Capanna R, Albisinai U, : Histologic evaluation of necrosis in osteosarcoma induced by chemotherapy regional mapping of viable and nonviable tumor. Cancer 56:1515-21,1985.
Pirkey EL, Hurt J: Roentgen evaluation of the soft tissues in orthopedics. AJR 82:271- ,1959.
Pollock L, Fullilove S, Shaw DG, Malone M, Hill RA: Proliferative myositis in a child. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg 77A:132-5,1995.
Potter DA, Glenn J, Kinsella T, Glatsein E, Lack EE, Restrepo C, White DE, Seipp CA, Wesley R, Rosenberg SA: Patterns of recurrence in patients with high-grade soft-tissue sarcomas. J Clin Oncol 3:353-66,1985.
Poulton TB, Murphy WD, Duerk JL, Chapek CC< Feiglin DH: Bone marrow reconversion in adults who are smokers: MR imaging findings. AJR 161:1217-21,1993.
Preusen SE, Pierce K, Demos TC, Lomasney LM: Radiologic case study: stress-induced osteolysis of the distal clavicle. Orthopedics 26:214-6,2003.
Pui MH, Kong HL, Choo HF: Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases. Australas Radiol 40:77-9,1996.
Putnam JB, Roth JA, Wesley MN, Johnston MR, Rosenberg SA: Analysis of prognostic factors in patients undergoing resection of pulmonary metastases from soft tissue sarcomas. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 87:260-8,1984.
Rabb CH, McComb JG, Raffel C, Kennedy JG: Spinal arachnoid cysts in the pediatric age group: an association with neural tube defects. J Neurosurg 77:369-72,1992.
Ragsdale BD, Madewell JE, Sweet DE: Radiologic and pathologic analysis of solitary bone lesions. Part II: Periosteal reactions. Radiol Clin North Am 19(4):749-783,1981.
Rak KM, Yakes WF, Ray RL, Dreisbach JN, Parker SH, Luethke JM, Stavros AT, Slater DD, Burke BJ: MR imaging of symptomatic peripheral vascular malformations. AJR 159:107-12,1992.
Rampoldi M, Bonica J, Remotti D: Extravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia following surgery for DeQuervain's disease. J Hand Surg 22B:116-8,1997.
Rasool MN, Ramdial PK: Osseous localization of Rosai-Dorfman disease. J Hand Surg 21B:349-50,1996.
Rayner CR: Soft tissue tumours of the hand. J Hand Surg 16B:125-6,1991.
Reisner A, Stiles RG, Tindall SC: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis causing acute thoracic myelopathy: a case report and discussion. Neurosurgery 26:507-11,1990.
Remstein ED, Kurtin PJ, Nascimento AG: Sclerosing extramedullary hematopoietic tumor in chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Am J Surg Pathol 24:51-5,2000.
Renwick SE, Naraghi FF, Worrell RV, : Cystic degeneration and calcification of muscle: late sequelae of compartment syndrome. J Orthop Trauma 8:440-4,1994.
Resnick D: Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions of Bone: Radiographic Principles. In Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Disorders. Resnick D and Niwayama G. (Ed) Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co., 1988, pp 3602 - 4072.
Resnick D, Cone RO III: The nature of humeral pseudocysts. Radiology 150:27-8,1984.
Resnick D, Shal SR, Robins JM: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH): Forestier's disease with extraspinal manifestations. Radiology 115:513-20,1975.
Reuther G, Mutschler W: Detection of local recurrent disease in musculoskeletal tumours: magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography. Skeletal Radiol 19:85-90,1990.
Rhoades CE, Neff JR, Rengachary SS, Batnitzky S, Ketcherside J, Price HI, Jacobs RR: Diagnosis of post-traumatic syringohydromyelia presenting as neuropathic joints. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Clin Orthop 180:182-7,1983.
Ricci C, Cova M, Kang YS, Yang A, Rahmouni A, Scott WW, Jr, Zerhouni EA: Normal age-related patterns of cellular and fatty bone marrow distribution in the axial skeleton: MR imaging study. Radiology 177:83-8,1990.
Richman LS, Gumerman LW, Levine G, : Localization of Tc99m polyphosphate in soft tissue malignancies. AJR 124:577-1975.
Rieck B, Kupsch E, Wittig K, Mailander P, Berger A: Traumatic aneurysms of hte hand. Description of 5 cases. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 27:132-6,1995.
Rosen G, Loren GJ, Brien EW, Ramana L, Waxman A, Lowenbraun S, Eckardt JJ, Eilber F, Menendez L, Mirra JM: Serial thallium-201 scintigraphy in osteosarcoma. Correlation with tumor necrosis after preoperative chemotherapy. Clin Orthop 293:302-6,1993.
Rosenthall L, Hawkins D, Chuang S: Radionuclide demonstration of relative increased blood flow in uniappendicular secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Clin Nucl Med 3:278-81,1978.
Rovinsky D, Nissen TP, Otsuka NY: Case report. Osteolytic reaction to polylevolactic acid fracture fixation. Orthopedics 24:177-9,2001.
Rubin DA, Kneeland JB: MR imaging of the musculoskeletal system: technical considerations for enhancing image quality and diagnositic yield. AJR 163:1155-63,1994.
Rubin JA, Steinberg DR: Turret exostosis of the metacarpal: a case report. J Hand Surg 21A:296-8,1996.
Rydholm A, Berg NO: Size, site and clinical incidence of lipoma: factors in the differential diagnosis of lipoma and sarcoma. Acta Orthop Scand 54:929-34,1983.
Ryu KN, Bae DK, Park YK, : Calcific tenosynovitis associated with calcific myonecrosis of the leg: imaging features. Skeletal Radiol 25:273-5,1996.
Saito H, Kawakami N: Postsurgical ossified extradural cyst of the lumbar spine: a case report. Spine 21:386-8,1996.
Samilson RL, Morris JM, Thompson RW: Tumors of the scapula. A review of the literature and analysis of 31 cases. Clin Orthop 58:105-15,1968.
Santavirta S, Konttinen YT, Saito T, Gr?nblad M, Partio E, Kemppinen P, Rokkanen P: Immune response to polyglycolic acid implants. J Bone Joint Surg 72B:597-600,1990.
Savoca CJ: Stress fractures: a classification of the earliest radiographic signs. Radiology 100:519-24,1971.
Schils JP, Andrish JT, Piraino DW, Belhobek GH, Richmond BJ, Bergfeld JA: Medial malleolar stress fractures in seven patients: review of the clinical and imaging features. Radiology 185:219-21,1992.
Schima W,Amann G, Stiglbauer R, : Preoperative staging of osteosarcoma: efficacy of MR imaging in detecting joint involvement. AJR 163:1171-5,1994.
Schmidt AH, Walker G, Kyle RF, Thompson RC, Jr: Periprosthetic metastatic carcinoma: pitfalls in the management of two cases initially diagnosed as osteolysis. J Arthroplasty 11:613-9,1996.
Schofield JK, Shun JL, Cerio R, : Cutaneous extramedullary hematopoiesis with a preponderance of atypical megakaryocytes in myelofibrosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 22:334-7,1990.
Schwarz EM, Lu AP, Goater JJ, : Tumor necrosis factor-?/nuclear transcription factor-?B signaling in periprosthetic osteolysis. J Orthop Res 18:472-80,2000.
Schultz RJ, Kearns RJ: Tumors in the hand. J Hand Surg 8:803-6,1983.
Schumacher IM, Genant HK, Korobkin M, : Computed tomography: its use in space-occupying lesions of the musculoskeletal system. J Bone Joint Surg 60A:600- ,1978.
Scotlandi K, Serra M, Manara MC, Benini S, Sarti M, Maurici D, Lollini PL, Picci P, Bertoni F, Baldini N: Clinical relevance of Ki-67 expression in bone tumors. Cancer 75:806-14,1995.
Sequeira W: The neuropahtic joint. Clin Exp Rheumatol 21:325-37,1994.
Shellock FG, Morris E, Deutsch AL, Mink JH, Kerr R, Boden SD: Hematopoietic bone marrow hyperplasia: high prevalence on MR images of the knee in asymptomatic marathon runners. AJR 158:335-8,1992.
Shepherd NA, Coates PJ, Brown AA: Soft tissue gliomatosis-heterotopic glial tissue in the subcutis: a cae report. Histopathology 11:655 ,1987.
Shuman WP, Pattern RM, Baron RI, : Comparison of STIR and spin-echo MR imaging at 1.5T in 45 suspected extremity tumors: lesion conspicuity and extent. Radiology 179:247- ,1991.
Sim FH, Frassica FJ, Frassica DA: Soft-tissue tumors: diagnosis, evaluation, and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2:202-11,1994.
Simeorov LG: A false aneurysm in the hand of a child. J Hand Surg 23B:555-6,1998.
Simon MA, Kirchner PT: Scintigraphic evaluation of primary bone tumors: comparison of technetium-99m phosphonate and gallium citrate imaging. J Bone Joint Surg 62A:758-64,1980.
Sinha AK, Kaeding CC, Wadley GM: Upper extremity stress fractures: clinical features of 44 cases. Clin J Sports Med 9:199-202,1999.
Skelton HG, Smith KJ: Glial heterotopia in the subcutaneous tissue overlying T-12. J Cutan Pathol 26:523-7,1999.
Slesarenko YA, Dagum AB, Hurst LC: False aneurysm of the superficial palmar arch causing acute carpal tunnel syndrome. Orthopedics 30:493-4,2007.
Smack D, Norton SA, Fitzpatrick JE: Proposal for a pathogenesis-based classification of tumoral calcinosis. Int J Dermatol 35:265-71,1996.
Smith AG, Urbanitis S, Blaivas M, Graisold W, Russell JW: Clinical and pathologic features of focal myositis. Muscle Nerve 23:1569-75,2000.
Snyder BJ, Oliva A, Buncke HJ: Calcific myonecrosis following compartment syndrome: report of two cases, review of the literature, and recommendations for treatment. J Trauma 39:789-95,1995.
Sostman HD, Prescott DM, Dewhirst MW, : MR imaging and spectroscopy for prognostic evaluation in soft-tissue sarcomas. Radiology 190:269- ,1994.
Soye I, Levine E, DeSmet AA, : Computed tomography in the preoperative evaluation of masses arising in or near the joints of the extremities. Radiology 143:727- ,1982.
Spinner RJ, Lins RE, Collins AJ, Spinner M: Posterior interosseous nerve compression due to an enlarged bicipital bursa confirmed by MRI. J Hand Surg 18B:753-6,1993.
Springfield D, Jennings C: Pathologic Fractures. In Fractures in Adults. Rockwood et all. (Ed) Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott, Co., 1991, pp 417-39.
Spruijt S, Krijgsman AA, van den Broek JAC, Tutin Nolthenius-Puylaert MCBJE: Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of one leg--a sign of aortic graft infection. Skeletal Radiol 28:224-8,1999.
Stafford SA, Rosenthal DI, Gebhardt MC, Brady TJ, Scott JA: MRI in stress fracture. AJR 147:553-6,1986.
Stanley P, Miller JA: Angiography of extremity masses in children. AJR 130:1119- ,1978.
Stechison MT, Tator CH: Cervical myelopathy in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: case report. J Neurosurg 73:279-82,1990.
Stecker MM, Marcotte P, Hurst R, Patterson T: Spinal dural arteriovenous malformations: intraoperative evoked potential evidence for pathphysiology. Spine 21:512-5,1996.
Stafford SA, Rosenthal DI, Gebhardt MC, Brady TJ, Scott JA: MRI in stress fracture. AJR 147:553-6,1986.
Steinbach LS, Hohnston JO, Teper EF, : Tumoral calcinosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Skeletal Radiol 24:573- ,1995.
Stess RM, Ariza J, Goodling GA: Preoperative imaging for soft tissue tumors of the foot. J Foot Ankle Surg 33:295- ,1994.
Stevens M, Helms C, El-Khoury G, Chow S: Unilateral hypertrophic osteoarthropathy associated with aortobifemoral graft infection. AJR 170:1584-6,1998.
Streichenberger N, Meyronet D, Fiere V, Pellissier JF, Petiot P: Focal myositis associated with S-1 radiculopathy: report of two cases. Muscle Nerve 29:443-6,2004.
Strudwick WJ, Goodman SB: Proximal fibular stress fracture in an aerobic dancer. A case report. Am J Sports Med 20:481-2,1992.
Stull MA, Moser RP, Kransdorf MJ, : Magnetic resonance appearance of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Skeletal Radiol 19:359- ,1990.
Sullivan D, Warren RF, Pavlov H, Kelman G: Stress fractures in 51 runners Clin Orthop 187:188-92,1984.
Sundaram M, McGuire MH, Herbold DR: Magnetic resonance imaging of soft tissue masses: an evaluation of fifty-three histologically proven tumors. Magn Res Imaging 6:237- ,1988.
Sundaram M, McGuire MH, Herbold DR, : High signal intensity soft tissue masses on T1-weighted pulsing sequences. Skeletal Radiol 16:30- ,1987.
Sundaram M, McGuire MH, Schajowicz F: Soft-tissue masses: histologic basis for decreased signal (short T2) on T2-weighted MR images. AJR 148:1247-50,1987.
Sundaram M, McLeod RA: MR imaging of tumor and tumor-like lesions of bone and soft tissue. AJR 155:817- ,1990.
Suzuki G, Itoh Y, Horiuchi Y: Surgical management of eosinophilic fasciitis of the upper extremity. J Hand Surg 22B:405-7,1997.
Swan JS, Grist TM, Sproat IA, : Musculoskeletal neoplasms: preoperative evaluation with MR angiography. Radiology 194:519- ,1995.
Swensen SJ, Keller PL, Berquist TH, : Magnetic resonance imaging of hemorrhage. AJR 145:921- ,1985.
Sweet DE, Madewell JE, Ragsdale BD: Radiologic and Pathologic Analysis of Solitary Bone Lesions: Part III: Matrix Patterns. Radiol. Clin. N. Amer 19(4):785-814, 1981.
Symeonides PP: High stress fractures of the fibula. J Bone Joint Surg 62B:192-3,1980.
Takebayashi S, Sugiyama M, Nagase M, Matsubara S: Severe adverse reaction to IV gadopentetate dimeglumine. AJR 160:659,1993.
Tehranzadeh J, Mnaymneh W, Ghavam C, Morillo G, Murphy GJ: Comparison of CT and MR imaging in musculoskeletal neoplasms. J Comput Assist Tomogr 13:466-72,1989.
Theodorou DJ, Theodorou SJ, Boutin RD, Chung C, Fliszar E, Kakitsubata Y, Resnick D: Stress fractures of the lateral metatarsal bone in metatarsus adductus foot deformity: a previously unrecognized association. Skeletal Radiol 28:679-84,1999.
Thometz JG, DiRaimondo CA: A case of recurrent Caffey's disease treated with naproxen. Clin Orthop 323:304-9,1996.
Tol JL, van Dijk CN, Maas M: MRI-induced retrocalcaneal bursitis. Skeletal Radiol 28:581-3,1999.
Tomita T, Ochi T, Fushimi H, : Reconstruction of the Achilles tendon for xanthoma: findings at operative re-exploration: a case report. J Bone Joint Surg 76A:444-7,1984.
Totty WG, Murphy WA, Lee JK: Soft-tissue tumours: MR imaging. Radiology 160:135-41,1986.
Tuncay IC, Demirori H, Isiklar ZU, : Calcific myonecrosis. Int Orthop 23:68-70,1999.
Uedo T, Yoshikawa H, Mori S, Araki N, Myoui A, Kuratsu S, Uchida A: Influence of local recurrence on the prognosis of soft-tissue sarcomas. J Bone Joint Surg 79B(4):553-7, 1997.
Umans H, Pavlov H: Insufficiency fractures of the talus: diagnosis with MR imaging. Radiology 197:439-42,1995.
Umans H, Pavlov H: Stress fractures of the lower extremities. Semin Roentgenol 29:176-93,1994.
van der Wall H, Palmer A, Murray IP: Bone scintigraphy of a liposarcoma presenting as a muscule hematoma. Clin Nucl Med 17:743-4,1992.
van der Wonde H-J, Bloem JL, Pope TL, Jr: Magnetic resonance imaging of the musculoskeletal system. Part 9. Primary tumors. Clin Orthop 347:272-86, 1998.
van der Woude HJ, Bloem JL, Verstraete K, Taminiau AH, Nooy MA, Hogendoom PC: Osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma after neodjuvant chemotherapy: value of dynamic MR imaging in detecting viable tumor before surgery. AJR 165:593-8,1995.
van der Woude HJ, Bloem JL, van Oostayen JA, Nooy MA, Taminiau AH, Hermans J, Reynierse M, Hogendomm PC: Treatment of high-grade bone sarcomas with neodjuvant chemotherapy: the utility of sequential color Doppler sonography in predicting histopathologic response. AJR 165:125-33,1995.
Vande Berg BC, Malghem J, Lecouvet FE, Maldague B: Classification and detection of bone marrow lesions with magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal Radiol 27:529-45,1998.
Vande Berg BC, Malghem J, Lecouvet FE, Maldague B: Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal bone marrow. Skeletal Radiol 27:471-83,1998.
Vanel D, Lacombe MJ, Couanet D, Kalifa C, Spielmann M, Genin J: Musculoskeletal tumors: follow-up with MR imaging after treatment with surgery and radiation therapy. Radiology 164:243-5,1987.
Vanel D, Shapeero LG, De Baere T, : MR imaging in the follow-up of malignant and aggressive soft-tissue tumors: results of 511 examinantions. Radiology 190:263- ,1994.
Verma RB, Sherman O: Athletic stress fractures: part I. History, epidemiology, physiology, risk factors, radiography, diagnosis, and treatment. Am J Orthop 30:798-806,2001.
Vermes C, Chandrasekaran R, Dobai JG, Jacobs, Andersson GBJ, An H, Hallab NJ, Galante JO, Glant: The combination of pamidronate and calcitriol reverses particle- and TNF-?-induced altered functions of bone-marrow-derived stromal cells with osteoblastic phenotype. J Bone Joint Surg 86B:759-70,2004.
Verstraete KL, De Deene Y, Roels H, Dierick A, Uyttendaele D, Kunnen M: Benign and malignant musculoskeletal lesions: dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging parametric "first pass" images depict tissue vascularization and perfusion. Radiology 192:835-43,1994.
Viamonte M Jr, Roen S, LePage J: Nonspecificty of abnormal vascularity in the angiographic diagnosis of malignant neoplasms. Radiology 106:59- ,1973.
Viau MR, Pedersen HE, Salciccioli GG, : Ectopic calcification as a late sequelae of compartment syndrome: report of two cases. Clin Orthop 176:178-80,1983.
Wahl RL, Hutchins GD, Buchsbaum DJ, Liebart M, Grossman HB, Fisher S: 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose uptake into human tumour xenografts: feasibility studies for cancer imaging with positron-emission tomography. Cancer 67:1544-50,1991.
Walker PD, Rosai J, Dorfman RF: The osseous manifestations of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. Am J Clin Pathol 75:131-9,1981.
Walker RN, Green NE, Spindler KP: Stress fractures in skeletally immature patients. J Pediatr Orthop 16:578-84,1996.
Walsh M, Springfield DS: Spontaneous lumbar hernia. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg 86A:1525-7,2004.
Walter RD, Resnick D: Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of a lower extremity in association with arterial graft sepsis. AJR 137:1059-61,1981.
Wang AA, Strauch RJ, Moore JA: Pseudoaneurysm of the ulnar artery occurring after fracture of the distal radius and ulna: a case report. J Hand Surg 23A:933-7,1998.
Wang J-W, Chen W-J: Calcific myonecrosis of the leg: a case report and review of the literature. Clin Orthop 389:185-90,2001.
Ward WG: Orthopaedic oncology for the non oncologist orthopaedist: introduction and common errors to avoid. Instr Course Lect 48:577-86,1999.
Ward WG, Sr, Rougraff B, Quinn R, Damron T, O'Connor MI, Turcotte, RE, Cline M: Tumors masquerading as hematomas. CORR 465:232-40,2007.
Waterreus RJ, Koopman J, Wolthers BG, Oosterhuis HJ: Cerbrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX): a clinical survey of the patient population in The Netherlands. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 89:169-75,1987.
Watts GF, Mitchell WD, Bending JJ, Reshef A, Leitersdorf E: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: a family study of sterol 27-hydroxylase mutations and pharmacotherapy. QJM 89:55-63,1996.
Weaver JB, Francisco CB: Pseudofractures, a manifestation of non-suppurative osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg 22:610-5,1940.
Weekes RG, Berquist TH, McLeod RA, : Magnetic resonance imaging of soft tissue tumors: comparison with computed tomography. Magn Res Imag 3:45- ,1985.
Weekes RG, McLeod RA, Reiman HM, Pritchard DJ. CT of soft-tissue neoplasms. AJR 144:355-60,1985.
Wehbé MA, Otto NR: Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia in the hand. J Hand Surg 11A:275-9,1986.
Weinberger G, Levinsohn EM: Computed tomography in the evaluation of sarcomatous tumors of the thigh. AJR 130:115- ,1978.
Weinfeld RM, Olson PN, Maki DD, Griffiths HJ: The prevalence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in two large American Midwest metropolitan hospital populations. Skeletal Radiol 26:222-5,1997.
Weinfeld SB, Haddad SL, Myerson MS: Metatarsal stress fractures. Clin Sports Med 16:319-38,1997.
Weiss SW, Goldblum JR: Benign tumors of peripheral nerves. In Weiss SW, Goldblum JR (eds) Soft Tissue Tumors Ed 4, Mosby, Philadelphia, 2001, pp 1194-6.
Wetzel LH, Levine E, Meuphy MD: A comparison of MR imaging and CT in the evaluation of musculoskeletal masses. Radiographics 7:851- ,1987.
Wilbur J, Slatopalsky E: Hyperphosphatemia and tumoral calcinosis. Ann Intern Med 68:1044- ,1980.
Widlus DM, Murray RR, White RI, Jr, Osterman FA, Jr, Schreiber ER, Satre RW, Mitchell SE, Kaufman SL, Williams GM, Weiland AJ: Congenital arteriovenous malformations: tailored embolotherapy. Radiology 169:511-6,1988.
Wilson FMA, Jaspan T: Thoracic spinal cord compression caused by diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Clin Radiol 42:133-5,1990.
Wolthers BG, Volmer M, van der Molen J, Koopman BJ, de Jager AE, Waterreus RJ: Diagnosis of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) and effect of chenodeoxycholic acid therapy by analysis of urine using capillary gas chromatography. Clin Chim Acta 131:53-65,1983.
Yakes WF, Haas DK, Parker SH, Gibson MD, Hopper KD, Mulligan JS, Pevsner PH, Johns JC, Jr, Carter TE: Symptomatic vascular malformations: ethanol embolotherapy. Radiology 170:1059-66,1989.
Yakes WF, Luethke JM, Merland JJ, Rak KM, Slafer DD, Hollis HW, Parker SH, Casasco A, Aymard A, Hodes J, : Ethanol embolization of arteriovenous fistulas: a primary mode of therapy. J Vasc Interv Radiol 1:89-96,1990.
Yakes WF, Pevsner P, Reed M, Donohue HJ, Ghaed N: Serial embolizations of an extremity arteriovenous malformation with alcohol via direct percutaneous puncture. AJR 146:1038-40,1986.
Yang X, Bhuiya T, Esposito M: Sclerosing extramedullary hematopoietic tumor. Ann Diagn Pathol 6:183-7,2002.
Yanmaz Alnigenis MN, Kolasinski SL, Kalovidouris AE: Focal myositis: a reveiw of 100 previously published cases and a report of 2 new cases. Clin Exp Rheumatol 17:631,1999.
Yao Y, Lomis NNT, Scott SM, Yoon H-C, Miller FJ: Percutaneous sclerotherapy for congenital venous malformations in the extremities. Orthopedics 24:45-51,2001.
Yoshikawa H, Ueda T, Mori S, Araki N, Kuratsu S, Uchida A, Ochi T: Skeletal metastases from soft-tissue sarcoma. J Bone Joint Surg 79B:548-52, 1997.
Yuh WT, Kathol MH, Sein MA, Ehara S, Chiu L: Hemangiomas of skeletal muscle: MR findings in five patients. AJR 149:765-8,1987.
Zindrick MR, Young MP, Daley RJ, Light TR: Metastatic tumors of the foot: case report and literature review. Clin Orthop 170:219-25,1982.
Zohman GL, Pierce J, Chapman MW, : Calcific myonecrosis mimicking an invasive soft-tissue neoplasm: a case report and review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg 80A:1193-7,1998.