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Gorham's Vanishing Bone Disease

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Case: Gorham's Disease

Reported by Myles Clough, Orthopaedic Surgeon, Kamloops, BC, Canada

Right-handed, middle aged dry-waller presented in 1990 with a fracture of the left wrist. Multiple procedures failed to heal the injury and the bone was reabsorbed from mid-forearm to the carpus.

In 1995 he had successful treatment with free vascularized fibular graft and fusion of the ulna to the 2nd metacarpal, accompanied by radiotherapy. In 1998, he fractured the ipsilateral ulna at the olecranon. In view of the history he was treated with open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture, electrical stimulation, infusions of pamidronate and further radiotherapy. He went on to heal and consolidate the fracture.


Nephropathy in a case of essential osteolysis. Electronic and optic microscopic studies. Chatelanat F, et al. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat Physiol Klin Med. 1965 Jun 1;339(3):262-74. French.

On spontaneous osteolysis.  Baran LA.  Ortop Travmatol Protez. 1965 Jun;26(6):69-72. Russian.

Cutaneous hemangiomas and disappearing bones. With a review of cutaneo-visceral hemangiomatosis.  Frost JF, et al.   Arch Dermatol. 1965 Nov;92(5):501-8.

On osteolysis Holland C, et al.  Arch Orthop Unfallchir. 1966;60(4):317-39. German.

Contribution on so-called essential osteolysis. On 1 case of symmetrical osteolysis of the femoral head and femoral neck Motta C.    Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 1966 Aug;101(4):609-19. German.

A case of massive regional osteolysis Kolpakova LV, et al.  Arkh Patol. 1967;29(5):75-7. Russian.

Progressive osteolysis in hemangiomatous bone and soft tissue processes Schneider V, et al.   Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Nuklearmed. 1967 Apr;106(4):584-9. German.

Migratory osteolysis of the lower extremities. Duncan H, et al.  Ann Intern Med. 1967 Jun;66(6):1165-73. No abstract available.

A case of apparently spontaneous chylothorax in children associated with osseous lesions of the osteolytic type Vanetti A, et al. Ann Chir Thorac Cardiovasc. 1968 Jan;7(1):99-104. French.

Massive osteolysis of the humerus treated by resection and prosthetic replacement. Poirier H.  J Bone Joint Surg [Br]. 1968 Feb;50(1):158-60.

Treatment of massive progressive osteolysis Selivanov VP, et al. Khirurgiia (Mosk). 1968 Oct;44(10):62-7. Russian.

Essential osteolysis with nephropathy. A review of the literature and case report of an unusual syndrome. Torg JS, et al. J Bone Joint Surg [Am]. 1968 Dec;50(8):1629-38.

Study of an unusual case of essential osteolysis. Behavior of dental tissues and of adjoining mandibular parts Bucher RP.   SSO Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnheilkd. 1969 Apr;79(4):501-24. French.

A case of idiopathic acroosteolysis Klaus E, et al. Radiologe. 1969 May;9(5):167-70. German.

Hereditary multicentric osteolysis with recessive transmission: a new syndrome. Torg JS, et al. J Pediatr. 1969 Aug;75(2):243-52.

Metabolic anomalies and clinical course in osteolysis Schwarzweller F. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 1969 Sep;106(4):791-8. German.

Case of akroosteolysis Suzuki S, et al. Rinsho Hoshasen. 1970 Aug;15(8):616-23. Japanese.

Massive osteolysis and tumoral calcinosis. Frame B, et al. Am J Med. 1971 Mar;50(3):408-12.

Acroosteolysis Musiari C. Ann Med Nav (Roma). 1972 Apr-Jun;77(2):199-226. Italian.

Acro-osteolysis Wakili D.  Med Monatsschr. 1972 May;26(5):201-5. German.

Carpal and tarsal agenesis with features of essential and hereditary osteolysis. McManus LF, et al. J Bone Joint Surg [Am]. 1972 Jul;54(5):1099-104.

Familial osteolysis of the carpal and tarsal bones. Gluck J, et al.   J Pediatr. 1972 Sep;81(3):506-10.

Massive osteolysis (phantom bone, disappearing bone). Report of a case with mandibular involvement. Phillips RM, et al.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1972 Dec;34(6):886-96.

Massive osteolysis of the ribs and sternum. Clinical study Frank M, et al. Cesk Pediatr. 1973 Jan;28(1):25-7. Czech.

Essential osteolysis with nephropathy. Macpherson RI, et al. J Can Assoc Radiol. 1973 Jun;24(2):98-103.

Massive osteolysis. Case report and review of literature. Thompson JS, et al. Clin Orthop. 1974;0(103):206-11.

Vanishing bone disease. Watson RC, et al. Clin Bull. 1974;4(1):18-9.

Gorham-Stout syndrome caused by hemangiolymphangioma Nozicka Z, et al. Cesk Patol. 1974 Feb;10(1):56-62. Czech.

Massive osteolysis. Report of a case. Sage MR, et al.  J Bone Joint Surg [Br]. 1974 Feb;56(1):130-5.

Massive mandibular osteolysis. Black MJ, et al. Arch Otolaryngol. 1974 Oct;100(4):314-6.

Essential osteolysis (trial treatment by endoprosthesis) Taiar V. Ortop Travmatol Protez. 1975 May;(5):6-11. Russian.

Carpal and tarsal osteolysis. A case report and review of the literature. Beals RK, et al. J Bone Joint Surg [Am]. 1975 Jul;57(5):681-6.

Massive osteolysis of the skull. Case report. Iyer V, et al. J Neurosurg. 1975 Jul;43(1):92-4.

Idiopathic multicentric osteolysis. Tyler T, et al.  Am J Roentgenol. 1976 Jan;126(1):23-31.

Osteolysis of the bones of tarsus, metatarsus and articles of fingers during haemangioendothelioma. peripheral form similar to Gorham-Stout syndrome Grepl J, et al. Cesk Radiol. 1976 Mar;30(2):118-24. Czech.

The phantom mandible Cadenat H, et al. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 1976 Oct-Nov;77(7):877-89.

Pleural effusions (chylous or nonchylous) with regional osteolysis: A case evocative of Gorham's disease Rousselin L, et al.  Poumon Coeur. 1977;33(3):203-7

Essential acro-osteolysis: congenital, mainly osseous malformations, chronic nephropathy (a new osteolyso-renal syndrome of hereditary nature Marie J. Bull Mem Acad R Med Belg. 1977;132(9):517-27. French.

Disappearing bone disease. A clinical and histological study. Heyden G, et al.  J Bone Joint Surg [Am]. 1977 Jan;59(1):57-61.

Angiomatosis of the metacarpal skeleton. Tunon JB, et al. Hand. 1977 Feb;9(1):88-91.

Massive osteolysis of the scapula and ribs. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg [Am]. 1977 Apr;59(3):405-6. No abstract available

Considerations in a long-term study on progressive cranio-carpo-tarsal osteolysis Huke B. Z Orthop. 1978;116(2):203-13.

Massive osteolysis: phantom bone disease. Murphy JB, et al. J Oral Surg. 1978 Apr;36(4):318-22.

Idiopathic multicentric osteolysis. Report of an affected father and son. Whyte MP, et al. Arthritis Rheum. 1978 Apr;21(3):367-76.

Pachydermoperiostosis with acro-osteolysis. A report of five cases. Guyer PB, et al. J Bone Joint Surg [Br]. 1978 May;60-B(2):219-23.

Spontaneous osteolysis of the mandible Staren'kova GV. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 1978 Jul-Aug;57(4):39-42. Russian.

Essential osteolysis of carpal and tarsal bones. Amin PH, et al. Br J Radiol. 1978 Jul;51(607):539-41.

Cryptogenetic osteolysis of the mandible Cadenat H, et al. J Radiol Electrol Med Nucl. 1978 Aug-Sep;53(8-9):509-12

Vanishing bone disease: a case report. Catalan A, et al. Hawaii Med J. 1978 Oct;37(10):302-4.

Case of spontaneous osteolysis Borejko M, et al. Chir Narzadow Ruchu Ortop Pol. 1979;44(3):275-81. Polish.

A rare case of so-called idiopathic osteolysis associated with a lymphangioma of the fibula Horst M, et al. Z Orthop. 1979 Feb;117(1):88-95.

Massive osteolysis of skull bones. Reddy DR, et al. J Indian Med Assoc. 1979 Apr 1;72(7):165-6.

Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea from massive osteolysis of the skull. Iyer GV. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1979 Aug;42(8):767-9.

Spontaneous osteolysis of the carpus Segmuller G. Handchirurgie. 1980;12(1-2):93-6.

A case of carpo-tarsal osteolysis Ludwig U, et al. Handchirurgie. 1980;12(1-2):97-100.

Nephropathy of idiopathic multicentric osteolysis. Bennett WM, et al. Nephron. 1980;25(3):134-8.

University of Toronto Neurosurgical Rounds no. 1. Massive osteolysis in association with multiple cerebrospinal fluid fistulae. Hoffman HJ, et al.  Can J Neurol Sci. 1980 Feb;7(1):39-44

Massive osteolysis in an infant. Abrahams J, et al.  AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1980 Nov;135(5):1084-6.

Radiodiagnosis of the Gorham-Stout syndrome Zidkova H, et al. Cas Lek Cesk. 1980 Dec 5;119(49):1344-7.

Radiology of massive osteolysis syndrome. Kolar J, et al. Radiol Diagn (Berl). 1981;22(3):369-79.

Radiotherapy of the Gorham - Stout syndrome Bek V, et al. Cesk Radiol. 1981 Sep;35(5):291-8.

Posttraumatic osteolysing haemangiomatosis Leu HJ, et al. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1981 Oct 23;106(43):1424-8. Gorham's disease Gonzalez Ruperez J, et al. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 1982 Mar-Apr;73(3-4):95-8.

Essential osteolysis. Clinical aspects and course of a rare condition Schmitt O, et al. Z Orthop. 1982 Apr;120(2):160-4.

Essential osteolysis with carpal and tarsal onset Fryns JP. J Genet Hum. 1982 Dec;30 Suppl 5:423-8.

Massive osteolysis of the maxillofacial skeleton: a clinical, radiographic, histologic, and ultrastructural study. Frederiksen NL, et al.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1983 May;55(5):470-80

Acro-osteolysis Lameiras FM. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 1983 Jun;15(2):83-5.

Familial vanishing limbs: four generations of idiopathic multicentric osteolysis. Hemingway AP, et al. Clin Radiol. 1983 Sep;34(5):585-8.

Progressive teleangiomatous osteolysis. Case report. Gherlinzoni F, et al.  Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1983 Dec;9(4):515-9.

Massive osteolysis. Presentation of a new case. Duran Sacristan DH, et al. An R Acad Nac Med (Madr). 1984;101(2):205-18

Massive osteolysis of the skull: long-term follow-up observations after cranioplasty. Report of two cases. Chai WX, et al. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1984;73(3-4):201-6.

Spontaneous idiopathic osteolysis (Gorham syndrome). A case report. Tandler P, et al. Z Orthop. 1984 Sep-Oct;122(5):635-8.

Complete unilateral osteolysis in the mandibular area. A case study Leilich G. Dtsch Z Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir. 1984 Sep-Oct;8(5):360-2.

The syndrome of idiopathic Gorham-Stout osteolysis Grabowski MT, et al. Chir Narzadow Ruchu Ortop Pol. 1985;50(3):210-3.

2 cases of a rare syndrome of idiopathic osteolysis (Gorham-Stout syndrome). Grabowski MT, et al. Chir Narzadow Ruchu Ortop Pol. 1985;50(4):333-8.

Idiopathic multicentric osteolysis with acro-osteolysis. A case report. Tookman AG, et al. J Bone Joint Surg [Br]. 1985 Jan;67(1):86-8.

The syndrome of idiopathic osteolysis. Classification, review, and case report. Hardegger F, et al.  J Bone Joint Surg [Br]. 1985 Jan;67(1):88-93.

Chronic nephropathy in idiopathic multicentric osteolysis. Hirooka M, et al. Int J Pediatr Nephrol. 1985 Apr-Jun;6(2):145-50.

Radiologic diagnosis of massive idiopathic osteolysis (Gorham-Stout syndrome) Gowin W, et al.  Rontgenpraxis. 1985 Apr;38(4):128-34.

Massive osteolysis in the hand and response to radiotherapy. Hanly JG, et al. J Rheumatol. 1985 Jun;12(3):580-2.

Gorham-Stout syndrome--progressive osteolysis with viscerocranial involvement Meydam K, et al. Strahlentherapie. 1985 Oct;161(10):625-7. German.

Follow-up in Gorham-Stout syndrome Jaspers U, et al.Fortschr Kiefer Gesichtschir. 1986;31:144-9. German. No abstract available.

Victor A. McKusick : Hereditory Osteolysis of Carpal Bones with Nephropathy OMIM database entry 6/2/1986

Listewnik MJ, Marzecki Z, Kordowski J Disappearing bone disease: massive osteolysis of the ribs treated with radiotherapy. Report of a case. Abstract Strahlenther Onkol 1986 May;162(5):338-41

Mathias K, Hoffmann J, Martin K Gorham-Stout syndrome of the mandible Abstract Radiologe 1986 Sep;26(9):439-41

Wildforster U Gorham syndrome. Presentation of a case. Abstract Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) 1986 Sep;29(5):198-200

Petit P, Fryns JP Distal osteolysis, short stature, mental retardation, and characteristic facial appearance: delineation of an autosomal recessive subtype of essential osteolysis. Abstract Am J Med Genet 1986 Nov;25(3):537-41

Victor A. McKusick : Recessive Osteolysis Syndrome OMIM database entry 12/17/1986

Gratz KW, Prein J, Remagen W A reconstruction attempt in progressive osteolysis (Gorham disease) of the mandible. A case report.Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 1987;97(8):980-4

Dickson GR, Mollan RA, Carr KE Cytochemical localization of alkaline and acid phosphatase in human vanishing bone disease.Abstract Histochemistry 1987;87(6):569-72 (Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland.)

Hejgaard N, Olsen PR Massive Gorham osteolysis of the right hemipelvis complicated by chylothorax: report of a case in a 9-year-old boy successfully treated by pleurodesis. Abstract J Pediatr Orthop 1987 Jan-Feb;7(1):96-9

Marymont JV Comparative imaging. Massive osteolysis (Gorham's syndrome, disappearing bone disease). Clin Nucl Med 1987 Feb;12(2):153-4

Takeda Y, Kuroda M, Suzuki A, Fujioka Y, Takayama K Massive osteolysis of the mandible. Abstract Acta Pathol Jpn 1987 Apr;37(4):677-84

Feigl D, Marmor A Gorham's disease of the clavicle with bilateral pleural effusions. Eight years later. Chest 1987 Jul;92(1):189

Carneiro RS, Steglich V "Disappearing bone disease" in the hand. Abstract J Hand Surg [Am] 1987 Jul;12(4):629-34

Joseph J, Bartal E Disappearing bone disease: a case report and review of the literature. Abstract J Pediatr Orthop 1987 Sep-Oct;7(5):584-8

Rao SV, Reddy DR, Reddy GM, Reddy PK, Mohan UL, Reddy M Idiopathic massive osteolysis of skull bones: a case report. Abstract Neurosurgery 1987 Oct;21(4):564-6

Choma ND, Biscotti CV, Bauer TW, Mehta AC, Licata AA Gorham's syndrome: a case report and review of the literature. (Meta analysis of 98 cases) Abstract Am J Med 1987 Dec;83(6):1151-6

Thacker CR Failure of arthrodesis of the wrist in "disappearing carpal bones disease". J R Coll Surg Edinb 1987 Dec;32(6):385-6

Wohar RM A call for information on massive osteolysis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1988 Mar;46(3):176

Pai GS, Macpherson RI Idiopathic multicentric osteolysis: report of two new cases and a review of the literature. Abstract Am J Med Genet 1988 Apr;29(4):929-36

Krzok G, Flossel C Gorham-Stout syndrome and diffuse skeletal hemangiomatosis Beitr Orthop Traumatol 1988 May;35(5):219-25

Gupta A, Bambery P, Bannerjee CK, Chari PS, Deodhar SD Monocentric idiopathic osteolysis. J Assoc Physicians India 1988 Nov;36(11):668-70

Hugo B, Schmidt M Pseudotumor of the shoulder after massive osteolysis (Gorham-Stout) ROFO Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Nuklearmed 1989 Jan;150(1):108-10

Falcone G, Gusso MI, Pennisi M A rare case of massive osteolysis Abstract Arch Putti Chir Organi Mov 1989;37(2):447-54

Chylothorax and osteolytic lesion. (No authors listed) Rev Clin Esp 1989 Apr;184(7):376-82

Hasegawa H, Bitoh S, Tamura K, Obashi J Idiopathic massive osteolysis of skull bone: a case report Abstract No Shinkei Geka 1989 May;17(5):481-4

Mendez AA, Keret D, Robertson W, MacEwen GD Massive osteolysis of the femur (Gorham's disease): a case report and review of the literature. Abstract J Pediatr Orthop 1989 Sep-Oct;9(5):604-8

Anavi Y, Sabes WR, Mintz S Gorham's disease affecting the maxillofacial skeleton. Abstract Head Neck 1989 Nov-Dec;11(6):550-7

Kulenkampff HA, Richter GM, Hasse WE, Adler CP Massive pelvic osteolysis in the Gorham-Stout syndrome. Abstract Int Orthop 1990;14(4):361-6

Kozlowski K, Bacha L, Brachimi L, Massen R Multicentric/massive idiopathic osteolysis in a 17-year-old girl. Abstract Pediatr Radiol 1990;21(1):48-51

Turra S, Gigante C, Scapinelli RA 20-year follow-up study of a case of surgically treated massive osteolysis. Abstract Clin Orthop 1990 Jan;(250):297-302

Dickson GR, Hamilton A, Hayes D, Carr KE, Davis R, Mollan RA An investigation of vanishing bone disease. Abstract Bone 1990;11(3):205-10

Handl-Zeller L, Hohenberg G Radiotherapy of Morbus Gorham-Stout: the biological value of low irradiation dose. Abstract Br J Radiol 1990 Mar;63(747):206-8

Glass-Royal M, Stull MA Musculoskeletal case of the day. Gorham syndrome of the right clavicle and scapula.AJR Am J Roentgenol 1990 Jun;154(6):1335-6

Leridon-Bellouard V, Neuenschwander S, Sardet A Iconographic rubric. Gorham disease Arch Fr Pediatr 1990 Oct;47(8):597-8

Fisher KL, Pogrel MA Gorham's syndrome (massive osteolysis): a case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1990 Nov;48(11):1222-5

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1990 Dec;70(6):698-703 Massive osteolysis of the maxillofacial bones. Report of two cases. Abstract Ohya T, Shibata S, Takeda Y

NORD Gorham's Disease National Organization for Rare Diseases 1991

Ann Dermatol Venereol 1991;118(10):727-8  What is your diagnosis? Osteolytic hemangiomatosis or Gorham's disease Zarrouk H, Dowlati A, Dowlati Y, Pierard GE

Skeletal Radiol 1991;20(4):307-9 Case report 672: Gorham's disease. Abstract Friedman L, Horwitz T, Beck M, Sinn R

Ann Med Interne (Paris) 1991;142(1):17-20 Essential osteolysis. Study of 3 cases and a classification trial Abstract Bisagni-Faure A, Giraudet-Le Quintrec JS, Job-Deslandre C, Menkes CJ

Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 1991 Nov-Dec;129(6):542-8 Idiopathic multicentric osteolysis and the delimitation of the cranio-carpal-tarsal-osteolysis syndrome Abstract 

Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 1991 Dec;155(6):579-81 The malignant degeneration of Gorham-Stout disease? Fretz CJ, Jungi WF, Neuweiler J, Haertel M

Am J Med Genet 1991 Dec 15;41(4):482-6 Essential osteolysis associated with nephropathy, corneal opacity, and pulmonary stenosis. Abstract Shinohara O, Kubota C, Kimura M, Nishimura G, Takahashi S

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1992;111(3):181-2 Idiopathic acro-osteolysis in an elderly woman. A 10-year follow-up. Abstract Ikegawa S, Hoshikawa Y, Doi M

Rev Med Interne 1992 May-Jun;13(3):215-7 Gorham disease disclosed by pathological fracture Vagneur JP, Lusetti F, Ripert JL, Gregoire A

Ann Rheum Dis 1992 Sep;51(9):1074-8 Primary idiopathic osteolysis: description of a family. Abstract Naranjo A, Muniain MA, Martin J, Vazquez J, Nunez J

J Bone Joint Surg Br 1992 Nov;74(6):928-9 Multicentric Gorham's disease. Tauro B

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1992 Dec;101(12):1018-20 Massive osteolysis (Gorham's disease) of the temporomandibular joint. Freedy RM, Bell KA

Pediatr Radiol 1993;23(7):543-4 Gorham's disease involving the thoracic skeleton. Plain films and CT in two cases. Abstract Mitchell CS, Parisi MT, Osborn RE

Pediatr Radiol 1993;23(7):553-5 Carpal and tarsal osteolysis: an MRI, angiographic and histopathologic study. Abstract Choi IH, Lee DY, Nam KS, Kim IO, Scott CI Jr

Genet Couns 1993;4(1):25-36 Carpo-tarsal osteolysis. Case report and review of the literature. Abstract Urlus M, Roosen P, Lammens J, Victor J, De Smet L, Molenaers G, Fabry G

Orv Hetil 1993 Apr 4;134(14):749-54 Clinico-pathological and orthopedic-surgical aspects of essential osteolysis Abstract Risko T, Bely M, Lakatos J

Disappearing bone disease of the upper extremity. Abstract Schnall SB, Vowels J, Schwinn CP, Wong D Orthop Rev 1993 May;22(5):617-20

Pregnancy complicated by Gorham disease. Abstract Porter KB, O'Brien WF, Towsley G, Cates JD, Watts DB Obstet Gynecol 1993 May;81(5 ( Pt 2)):808-10

Gorham's massive osteolysis: the role of radiation therapy and a review of the literature. Abstract Dunbar SF, Rosenberg A, Mankin H, Rosenthal D, Suit HD Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1993 Jun 15;26(3):491-7

Idiopathic multicentric osteolysis: family report and review of the literature. Abstract Rizzo R, Sorge G, Denaro V, Carpinato C, Tine A Clin Dysmorphol 1993 Jul;2(3):251-6

Seven-year follow-up of vanishing bone disease in a 14-year-old girl. Abstract Schiel H, Prein J Head Neck 1993 Jul-Aug;15(4):352-6

Case report 803: Gorham's disease (Gorham-Stout syndrome) of scapula. (? first report of MRI features) Abstract Damron TA, Brodke DS, Heiner JP, Swan JS, DeSouky S Skeletal Radiol 1993 Aug;22(6):464-7

Massive osteolysis. (Review of 11 cases) Abstract Shives TC, Beabout JW, Unni KK Clin Orthop 1993 Sep;(294):267-76

Inflammatory Gorham disease Abstract Saraux A, Menard N, Ehrhart A, Baron D, Le Goff P Rev Rhum Ed Fr 1993 Oct;60(9):614-6

Massive osteolysis of the chest in children: an unusual cause of respiratory distress. Abstract Meller JL, Curet-Scott M, Dawson P, Besser AS, Shermeta DW J Pediatr Surg 1993 Dec;28(12):1539-42

Gorham's disease or vanishing bone disease: plain film, CT, and MRI findings of two cases. Abstract Dominguez R, Washowich TL Pediatr Radiol 1994;24(5):316-8

Pleural effusion: a complication of Gorham's disease. Tie ML, Poland GA, Rosenow EC 3rd Pediatr Radiol 1994;24(7):542

Chylothorax in Gorham's syndrome. A common complication of a rare disease. Abstract Tie ML, Poland GA, Rosenow EC 3rd Chest 1994 Jan;105(1):208-13

Anesthesia for a patient with Gorham's syndrome: "disappearing bone disease". Mangar D, Murtha PA, Aquilina TC, Connell GR Anesthesiology 1994 Feb;80(2):466-8

Atraumatic osteolysis of the distal clavicle. Results of open surgical excision. Abstract Slawski DP, Cahill BR Am J Sports Med 1994 Mar-Apr;22(2):267-71

Idiopathic phalangeal osteolysis. Abstract Todd G, Saxe N Arch Dermatol 1994 Jun;130(6):759-62

Gorham's disease. Report of 2 cases associated with bilateral pleural effusion. Abstract Padua y Gabriel A, Peraza-Martinez L, Peralta-Sanchez J, Jaramillo Y, Arista-Nasr J Rev Invest Clin 1994 Jul-Aug;46(4):301-5

Intraosseous hemangiomatosis: technetium-99m(V)dimercaptosuccinic acid and technetium-99m-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate imaging. Abstract Kobayashi H, Shigeno C, Sakahara H, Hosono M, Hosono M, Yao ZS, Endo K, Konishi J J Nucl Med 1994 Sep;35(9):1482-4

Disappearing bone disease: a case report. Abstract Kareem BA, Das PK, Saad R Singapore Med J 1994 Oct;35(5):527-8

Idiopathic multicentric osteolysis. Raat H, De Witte B, Lateur L J Belge Radiol 1994 Oct;77(5):220

Gorham disease of the spine. Abstract Drewry GR, Sutterlin CE 3rd, Martinez CR, Brantley SG Spine 1994 Oct 1;19(19):2213-22

Gorham's syndrome. Correlative imaging using nuclear medicine, plain film, and 3-D CT. Igel BJ, Shah H, Williamson MR, Sell JJ Clin Nucl Med 1994 Nov;19(11):1017-9

CT and MRI of massive osteolysis of Gorham. Abstract Assoun J, Richardi G, Railhac JJ, Le Guennec P, Caulier M, Dromer C, Sixou L, Fournie B, Mansat M, Durroux D J Comput Assist Tomogr 1994 Nov-Dec;18(6):981-4

CT and MRI of Gorham syndrome. Abstract Vinee P, Tanyu MO, Hauenstein KH, Sigmund G, Stover B, Adler CP J Comput Assist Tomogr 1994 Nov-Dec;18(6):985-9

Massive osteolysis--Gorham's syndrome. Prabhu SS, Colaco MP, Pradhan MR, Johari AN, Devany G Indian Pediatr 1994 Dec;31(12):1542-4

Massive osteolysis of the pelvis, femur and sacral bone with a Gorham-Stout syndrome. Abstract

Stove J, Reichelt A Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1995;114(4):207-10

Idiopathic carpotarsal osteolysis with Bartter's syndrome. A case report and review of the literature. Abstract Szoke G, Vizkelety TL, Renyi-Vamos A, Elek E Clin Orthop 1995 Jan;(310):120-9

Gorham-Stout massive ostelysis. A case report Abstract Rudert M, Gross W, Kirschner P Unfallchirurg 1995 Feb;98(2):102-4

Gorham's syndrome with pleural effusion and colonic carcinoma. Abstract Ng SE, Wang YT Singapore Med J 1995 Feb;36(1):102-4

Idiopathic massive osteolysis of the femur. Syndrome called Gorham-Stout syndrome Abstract Giraudet-Le Quintrec JS, Peyrache MD, Courpied JP, Menkes CJ, Kerboull M Presse Med 1995 Apr 15-22;24(15):719-21

Massive craniofacial osteolysis. Abstract Moore MH, Lam LK, Ho CM J Craniofac Surg 1995 Jul;6(4):332-6

Gorham's disease: a literature review and case reports. Abstract Green HD, Mollica AJ, Karuza AS J Foot Ankle Surg 1995 Sep-Oct;34(5):435-41 Published erratum appears in J Foot Ankle Surg 1995 Nov-Dec;34(6):598

When bone disappears. Naden BA RN 1995 Oct;58(10):26-8; quiz 29

A patient with carpotarsal osteolysis and nephropathy treated with long-term hemodialysis. Abstract Borra SI, Kleinfeld M Am J Kidney Dis 1995 Nov;26(5):788-91

Massive osteolysis of the mandible with subsequent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a case report. Kayada Y, Yoshiga K, Takada K, Tanimoto K J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1995 Dec;53(12):1463-5

Hemangioma of bone Wheeless CW Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics 1996

Abnormal glomerular basement membrane in idiopathic multicentric osteolysis. Abstract Bakker SJ, Vos GD, Verschure PD, Mulder AH, Tiebosch AT Pediatr Nephrol 1996 Apr;10(2):200-2

Idiopathic progressive osteolysis of craniofacial bones. Abstract Diaz-Ramon C, Fernandez-Latorre F, Revert-Ventura A, Mas-Estelles F, Domenech-Iglesias A, Lazaro-Ventura A Skeletal Radiol 1996 Apr;25(3):294-7

Interleukin-6: a potential mediator of the massive osteolysis in patients with Gorham-Stout disease. Abstract Devlin RD, Bone HG 3rd, Roodman GD J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996 May;81(5):1893-7

Idiopathic osteolysis of the acetabulum: a case report. Abstract Nemec B, Matovinovic D, Gulan G, Kozic S, Schnurrer T J Bone Joint Surg Br 1996 Jul;78(4):666-7

Gorhams disease: a literature review and case reports. Needleman RL J Foot Ankle Surg 1996 Jul-Aug;35(4):369

Successful treatment of chylothorax by bleomycin for Gorham's disease. Abstract Aoki M, Kato F, Saito H, Mimatsu K, Iwata H Clin Orthop 1996 Sep;(330):193-7

Idiopathic multicentric osteolysis principally affecting the phalanges of the hands and feet. Abstract Downing ND, Garnavos C, Lunn PG J Hand Surg [Br] 1996 Oct;21(5):656-9

Massive osteolysis (Gorham-Stout syndrome) in the maxillofacial region: an unusual manifestation. Abstract Klein M, Metelmann HR, Gross U Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1996 Oct;25(5):376-8

Young patient with Gorham's syndrome. Wilkinson IB, Kinnear WJ Thorax 1996 Dec;51(12):1279

Bilateral chylothorax complicating massive osteolysis. Abstract Riantawan P, Tansupasawasdikul S, Subhannachart P Thorax 1996 Dec;51(12):1277-8

Gorham's syndrome: a usually fatal cause of pleural effusion treated successfully with radiotherapy. Abstract McNeil KD, Fong KM, Walker QJ, Jessup P, Zimmerman PV Thorax 1996 Dec;51(12):1275-6

Kasabach-Merritt syndrome of the leg associated with osteolysis or Gorham sign. Abstract Kerhoas Nicolas CK, Le Bidaut M, Dosquet C, Enjolras O, Stalder JF Ann Dermatol Venereol 1997;124(12):852-4

Gorham massive osteolysis. Abstract Sato K, Sugiura H, Yamamura S, Mieno T, Nagasaka T, Nakashima N Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1997;116(8):510-3

Pathology of disappearing bone disease: a case report with immunohistochemical study. Abstract Pazzaglia UE, Andrini L, Bonato M, Leutner M Int Orthop 1997;21(5):303-7

Vanishing vertebra. Mabille L, Berenger N, Laredo JD, Kuntz D, Mundler O Clin Nucl Med 1997 Jan;22(1):49-51

Massive osteolysis of the skull base. Abstract Frankel DG, Lewin JS, Cohen B Pediatr Radiol 1997 Mar;27(3):265-7

Gorham disease with prominent pleuropulmonary manifestation. Abstract  Dutheil-Doco A, Ducou le Pointe H, Larroquet M, Josset P, Tournier G, Montagne JP J Radiol 1997 Sep;78(9):665-7

Radiological case of the month. Gorham disease of costovertebral localization Leonard JC, Morin C Arch Pediatr 1997 Sep;4(9):893-5

Disappearing bone disease (Gorham-stout disease): report of a case with a follow-up of 48 years. Abstract Rauh G, Gross M Eur J Med Res 1997 Oct 30;2(10):425-7

Nature 1997 Nov 27;390(6658):404-7 Antiangiogenic therapy of experimental cancer does not induce acquired drug resistance. Abstract Boehm T, Folkman J, Browder T, O'Reilly MS

Gorham's disease of the radius: radiographic, scintigraphic, and MRI findings with pathologic correlation. A case report and review of the literature. Abstract Spieth ME, Greenspan A, Forrester DM, Ansari AN, Kimura RL, Gleason-Jordan I Skeletal Radiol 1997 Nov;26(11):659-63

Successful conservative management of Gorham disease of the skull base and cervical spine. Abstract Mawk JR, Obukhov SK, Nichols WD, Wynne TD, Odell JM, Urman SM Childs Nerv Syst 1997 Nov-Dec;13(11-12):622-5

Alpha-2b interferon and oral clodronate for Gorham's disease. Hagberg H, Lamberg K, Astrom G Lancet 1997 Dec 20-27;350(9094):1822-3

Angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. Abstract   Zetter BR Annu Rev Med 1998;49:407-24

Gorham-Stout syndrome of the spine. Case report and review of the literature Abstract Florchinger A, Bottger E, Claass-Bottger F, Georgi M, Harms J Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 1998 Jan;168(1):68-76

Pain and weakness of the shoulder in a 16-year-old boy. Remia LF, Richolt J, Buckley KM, Donovan MJ, Gebhardt MC Clin Orthop 1998 Feb;(347):268-71, 287-90

From polycystic bone angiomatosis to Gorham's disease. Two case-reports and literature review. Auge B, Toussirot E, Kantelip B, Wendling D Rev Rhum Engl Ed 1998 Mar;65(3):201-6

Massive osteolysis in the pelvis--a case report. Dan'ura T, Ozaki T, Sugihara S, Taguchi K, Inoue H Acta Orthop Scand 1998 Apr;69(2):197-8

Orthopod enquiry re Gorham's Disease Clough JFM  Digest June 1998

Combined effects of angiostatin and ionizing radiation in antitumour therapy. Abstract   Mauceri HJ, Hanna NN, Beckett MA, Gorski DH, Staba MJ, Stellato KA, Bigelow K, Heimann R, Gately S, Dhanabal M, Soff GA, Sukhatme VP, Kufe DW, Weichselbaum RR Nature 1998 Jul 16;394(6690):287-91

Inhibitors of angiogenesis enter phase III testing. Nelson NJ J Natl Cancer Inst 1998 Jul 1;90(13):960-3

Biphosphonates as anticancer drugs Mundy GR, Yoneda T NEJM Aug 1998 339 398-400

Matrix-500 Device for capacitively coupled electrical stimulation. Dr.Myron MacDonald

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