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Alphabetical list of all pages including sections and chapters in Musculoskeletal Medicine eBook

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F ... 12 G ... 3 H ... 8 I ... 6 J ... 1 K ... 2
L ... 9 M ... 11 N ... 4 O ... 16 P ... 21 Q ... 0
R ... 12 S ... 26 T ... 15 U ... 1 V ... 1 W ... 2
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Page: A word on peer review (and a disclaimer)
A word on peer review (and a disclaimer)   There is a great profusion of medical information available for free on the Internet, and a lot of it is good. Yet even good information may not be completely useful to the reader who may not know if it is trustw
Page: About Sidebar
About MSKMedicine Table of ContentsContributorsAcknowledgementsAuthors AreaParticipating OrganisationsLiterature on MSK Medicine EducationBurden of MSK Diseases
Page: Achilles tendinitis (insertional and non-insertional)
Page: Achilles tendon disorders
Description The Achilles tendon is subject to high forces with each step and therefore subject to wear-and-tear damage. There are many pathological conditions that affect the Achilles tendon, but the most common chronic conditions are tendinitis and bursi
Page: Acknowledgements
Page: Acromioclavicular joint separation
Description Acromioclavicular (AC) joint injury is not a benign injury, and it includes a large spectrum ranging from joint sprain to complete separation. It is among the most common injuries in athletes and in the general population. Despite the vast amo
Page: Adhesive capsulitis
Description Adhesive capsulitis, also more generally referred to as “frozen shoulder,” describes a pathologic process marked by early shoulder pain and gradual loss of passive and active gleno-humeral motion. Primary adhesive capsulitis describes the idio
Page: Adult spinal deformity (Kyphosis, Scoliosis, other?)
Australian Musculoskeletal Education Collaboration. The Development of National Core Competencies in Musculoskeletal Basic and Clinical Science. A project to improve the health of the nation through better medical education delivery, supported by funding
Page: An approach to radiographic interpretation of bone lesions
The systematic examination of radiographs will allow  the reader to create a differential diagnosis and allow for recognition of classic findings.  This systematic examination follows a series of questions, as follows: Is this the right radiograph of the
Page: An approach to skeletal metastases
Description Metastatic lesions are the most common malignancy in bone, vastly out numbering primary malignancies.  The treatment of skeletal metastasis varies depending on location, disability, life expectancy and the sensitivity of the primary tumor to c
Page: Ankle fractures
Description Fractures of the ankle comprise injuries to the medial +/- lateral malleolus (the distal tibia and fibula respectively), such that the "side" articulations with the talus are disrupted. Typically, injuries to the direct weigh bearing superior
Page: Ankle Fractures (Tibia and Fibula)
Description Ankle fractures are breaks of the distal tibia or fibula (near or in the the so- called malleolus); occasionally, they involved the shaft of the fibula as well. Ankle fractures range from a simple injuries of a single bone to complex ones invo
Page: Ankle OCD
Description Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a localized injury or condition affecting an articular surface that involves separation of a segment of cartilage and subchondral bone (Schenck, 1996).  The ankle joint is the most commonly injured joint in a
Page: Ankle sprains
Description Ankle sprains are among the most common musculoskeletal injuries. Patients typically describe an episode where they “roll their ankle” to one side (often inward, a so called  “inversion” sprain (see Figure 1) and thereby tear the ligaments on
Page: Anklylosing spondylitis
Page: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries
Description Tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) often result from sports-related injuries and significantly compromise the stability of the knee joint. In particularly to anterior translation and rotational forces and also disrupts the proprioce
Page: Arthritis of the Acromioclavicular joint
Page: Arthritis of the ankle
Description Ankle arthritis can follow any damage to the joint, such as a single injury (fracture, for example), repeated minor trauma (recurrent ankle sprain, for example), or any other insult to the joint. Degenerative joint disease may be the end stage
Page: Arthritis of the elbow
Description Elbow arthritis can be divided into two primary etiologies – osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.  Secondary causes of elbow arthritis include trauma, hemophilia, joint infection, and crystalline arthropathy.  The most common symptoms asso
Page: Arthritis of the foot
Page: Arthritis of the Gleno-humeral joint
Description Glenohumeral arthritis is characterized by destruction of the articular cartilage of the glenohumeral joint.  Etiologies of shoulder arthritis include osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, rotator cuff arthropathy, postraumatic arthritis, an
Page: Arthritis of the Hand
Description Arthritis of the hand is a common and often disabling condition.  There are several distinct types of arthritis affecting the hand; of these, degenerative arthritis (osteoarthritis) is the most common. Also seen are inflammatory arthritis (inc
Page: Arthritis of the hip
Description Instructions for authors One or two sentences that describes the disease - basically, how to tell an educated lay person what this condition is.    Clinical Manifestations Instructions for authors What are the signs and symptoms?   (Try to be
Page: Arthrosis of the ankle and hindfoot
Description Ankle  arthrosis commonly occurs after a major traumatic ankle injury. A pilon fracture may cause arthrosis of the tibiotalar (ankle) joint; a depressed calcaneal can cause subtalar arthritis.  Arthrosis is also seen after less severe injuries
Page: Article Sidebar
  Content Download: | Famous Quote{random-excerpt:space=PORT|page=Famous Quotes|link=false|title=false}Peer Review Help Peer Review this article. Use the form below to obtain credit and be included as a Peer Review Contributor.  Related Content Resources
Page: Articular cartilage
Physiologic Function Mechanics Joint hydrodynamics Normal Histology Cell types Extracellular matrix Structure-function relationships Neurovascular supply Development and Aging Development (changes in cell density, cell type, and extracellular matrix) Agin
Page: Authors Area
Instructions for authors Musculoskeletal Conditions Instructions for Authors Fracture and Trauma Topics Instructions for Authors Chapter outlines Injuries Chapter Outline Conditions Chapter Outline Index


Page: Back pain, mechanical
Page: banner
Page: Basic Science topics
Topics Author Status Comments Bone Metabolism       Fracture Healing       Articular cartilage       Ligament       Tendon       Intervertebral disc       Meniscus       Muscle       Synovium       Nerve       Growth plate       Developmental Musculoskele
Page: Blount’s disease
Description Blount’s disease is a growth abnormality of the proximal tibia that causes progressive deformity resembling a bowleg.  The characteristic deformity is medial angulation and internal rotation of the proximal tibia. Clinical Manifestations Typic
Page: Bone
Page: Bone and Joint Initiative USA
The Bone and Joint Decade is a global, multi-disciplinary initiative targeting the care of people with musculoskeletal conditions--bone and joint disorders. Its focus is on improving your quality of life as well as advancing the understanding and treatmen
Page: Bone Metabolism
Page: Brachial plexus injuries
Page: Burden of Musculoskeletal Diseases
Musculoskeletal diseases are the most common health condition in the United States. Estimated U.S. cost for treatment of all persons with a musculoskeletal disease diagnosis and indirect lost wages was $849 billion annually for the years 2002 to 2004, 7.7
Page: Bursitis of the knee and hip
Description Bursitis is an inflammation or degeneration of the sac-like structures that protect the soft tissues from bony prominences.  Many areas of the body contain a bursa, including the shoulders, ankles, hips, and knees.  Bursitis may result from lo


Page: Calcaneal fractures
Description The calcaneus is the most commonly fractured tarsal bone, with over 75% of lesions involving the joint space. These injuries are generally the result of a high-energy mechanism, such as a fall from height or motor vehicle collision, and presen
Page: Calcific tendonitis of the shoulder
Description           Calcific tendonitis is a painful inflammatory condition involving the resorption of calcium hydroxyapatite deposits in or around a tendon, traditionally involving the rotator cuff tendons of the shoulder and most commonly the suprasp
Page: Carpal fractures
Description There are eight carpal bones at the wrist, situated between the radius and ulna in the forearm and the metacarpals in the hand. The most common (and important) carpal fracture is that of the scaphoid (discussed in its own section).  Among the
Page: Carpal instability
Description The eight carpal bones of the wrist (“carpus”) are held together by ligaments. When there is an injury to a ligament (ranging from an isolated sprain to a catastrophic dislocation) the wrist may be rendered unstable. Carpal ligament injuries c
Page: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Description Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a compression neuropathy of the median nerve as it passes though the carpal tunnel at the wrist.  Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome typically present with numbness and tingling in the thumb, index finger and long f
Page: Cauda Equina Syndrome
Page: Cerebral Palsy
What is Cerebral Palsy ? Cerebral Palsy is a non-progressive disorder of the brain which results in varied presentation based on the severity of the anoxic insult to the brain.  Predisposing factors are: Prematurity Anoxic insult at birth / delayed labour
Page: Cervical stenosis and myelopathy
Page: Cervical radiculopathy
Page: Cervical spine fractures
Nanfang Xu Description Cervical spine fractures, commonly known as ‘broken neck’, typically happen in high-energy traumas such as motor vehicle accidents, and account for the majority of fractures of the spinal column, as the cervical spine represents the
Page: Charcot arthropathy
Page: Child Abuse Fractures
Description Physical child abuse can result in soft-tissue and bony trauma to any site throughout the body. While no injury or fracture pattern is pathognomonic for abuse, fractures commonly associated with inflicted trauma include fractures of the ribs,
Page: Chondral lesions of the hip
Page: Chondromalacia patella
Page: Chondrosarcoma
Description Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor whose cells produce cartilage. Chondrosarcoma can arise de nov (ie a primary tumor) or from malignant degeneration of benign cartilage lesions (such as enchondromas or osteochondromas). The incidence of Chon
Page: Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome
Page: Clavicular shaft fractures
Description Clavicular shaft fracture commonly occur in young adults due to falls with the arm at the side or direct blow to the shoulder, and the majority can be treated non-operatively with a sling. Structure and function The clavicle is an S-shaped bon
Page: Clinical photo showing aspiration of olecranon bursitis
Page: Club foot
Description Talipes equinovarus, commonly known as “clubfoot,” is a congenital deformity of the foot. It is characterized by plantar flexion (equinus), inversion (varus), and an exaggerated arch (cavus) that may involve one or both feet. Taken together, t
Page: Collateral ligament injuries of the knee
Description The medial and lateral collateral ligaments are important stabilizers of the knee joint. Injury can occur in isolation or in concert with multiligamentous injuries and severe knee dislocations. The evaluation of collateral ligamentous integrit
Page: Compartment syndrome
Description Compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening condition caused by swelling within the myofacial compartments of the limb. It most commonly occurs in the leg or forearm secondary to trauma and leads to decreased tissue perfusion below basal tissue
Page: Compression neuropathies of the arm
Description Pressure on peripheral nerves can cause numbness, weakness or pain --compression neuropathy--in the areas the nerves supply. Pressure on the median nerve at the wrist (ie,  carpal tunnel syndrome) is the most common compression neuropathy of t
Page: Conditions Chapter Outline
Descriptions of sections for chapters using Conditions template for topics in the Musculoskeletal Medicine eBook: Section Heading What should be included here Description One or two sentences that describes the disease. Basically, how to tell an educated
Page: Contributors
Page: Cord syndromes (Anterior, Central, Posterior,Brown-Sequard syndrome)


Page: Deep Vein Thrombosis
Page: Deformities of the foot
Page: DeQuervains disease
Description De Quervain’s disease  is a common cause of pain at the base of the thumb and the radial side of the wrist. This condition is characterized by irritation of the  extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus, as they pass through their
Page: Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
Introduction The term DDH is an acronym for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. This is a condition of the child's hip which may come to light in the neonatal period or during infancy and rarely during childhood where there is a dysplasia of the acetabulu
Page: Diabetic foot disorders
Description Diabetes is a medical condition unfortunately characterized by many complications, including neuropathy and peripheral artery disease. Loss of sensation can lead to ulceration of the skin and accelerated degeneration of the joint (a condition
Page: Disease Outline
The following outline can be used by novices and experts alike. If you can fill in all the lines, one might say you understand the disease, or at the least, know a lot about it! Description One sentence that describes the disease---basically, how to tell
Page: Disorders of the Great Toe
Description Disorders of the great toe (the hallux, in medical terminology) include degenerative arthritis (hallux rigidus), bunions (hallux valgus), gout and traumatic conditions (such as sesamoiditis or turf toe). Structure and function There are three
Page: Disorders of the Labrum and Proximal Biceps
Page: Disorders of the lesser toes
Description An imbalance between the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the foot can produce deformities of the lesser toes.  These include so-called  claw toe deformity and hammer toe deformity. Both are characterized by a prominent bump of the flexed pr
Page: Disorders of the nail
Description The fingernail serves multiple functions.  In addition to protecting the fingertip, it provides tactile sensation, aids in thermoregulation, and assists in picking up small objects; it also has dense lymphatics in the hyponychium that help res
Page: Distal biceps rupture
Page: Distal clavicle fractures
Description Instructions for authors One or two sentences that describes the injury. Try to say something beyond the obvious. An apt comment might be “Geriatric hip fractures are low energy injuries typically associated with osteoporosis, and a (perhaps s
Page: Distal humeral fractures
Description Distal humeral fractures can generate complicated clinical scenarios and definitive treatment remains controversial. The complexity of these fractures is due to the close relationship of anatomic structures within the elbow joint.  Distal hume
Page: Distal radius (Colles) fractures
Description. Fractures of the distal radius are common. Fractures of the distal radius are often sustained after a fall on the out-stretched hand and are often associated with osteoporosis.  Distral radius fractures are frequently accompanied by fractures
Page: Down Syndrome (Musculoskeletal Effects)
Page: Dupuytren's Disease
Description Dupuytren's Disease (or simply "Dupuytren's") is a progressive disorder characterized by fibrosis of the palmar fascia. Dupuytren's is associated with the formation of palpable nodules and cords in the palm and fingers. In its later stages Dup


Page: Elbow dislocation
Description Dislocation of the elbow (3 articulations --ulno-trochlear hinge joint, and radio-capitellar and proximal radio-ulnar pivot joints) occurs when the active and passive stabilizing mechanisms fail under stress. Sequential disruption of the stabi
Page: Elbow instability
Description The elbow is an inherently stable joint requiring a significant force to dislocate. Elbow dislocations require prompt identification and treatment and are most often associated with osteochondral injuries and post-traumatic stiffness . Structu
Page: Ewings Sarcoma
Ewing’s Sarcoma Description Ewing’s Sarcoma is a primary tumor of bone belonging to a primitive neuroectodermal lineage (PNETs).  Primary Neuroectodermal Tumor Clinical Manifestations Ewing’s Sarcoma often presents a painful limb with or without a soft ti
Page: Exertional Compartment Syndrome
Description Compartment syndrome is a limb threatening condition that results when there is an abnormal increase in pressure within a closed myofascial space.  It leads to impaired perfusion of muscles and nerves accompanied by compromised neuromuscular f
Page: Extensor mechanism (Patella and Quad tendon) rupture
Description There are many muscle-tendon units that flex the knee, but there is essentially only one muscle group that extends it: the quadriceps. As such, disruption of the quadriceps leads to profound impairment. A patient with a disrupted extensor mech


Page: Female Athletic Triad
Page: Femoral shaft fractures
Description Femoral shaft fractures are emergent injuries that are typically a result of high energy forces or low energy falls in the elderly and are commonly associated with multisystem trauma.  Because the femur is a major load-bearing bone and is the
Page: Femoral-acetabular impingement
Page: Fibromyalgia
Description  Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain that is often accompanied by fatigue, poor sleep, cognitive dysfunction, and depression. Clinical manifestations Individuals with fibromyalgia typically "hurt all over"
Page: Finger and hand infections
Description The hand is susceptible to infection by virtue of its intimate contact with the outside world, its great surface area and its propensity for injury. That is, the hand is exposed frequently to infectious organisms, and these organisms are frequ
Page: Finger sprains and dislocations
Description Injuries to the soft tissues surrounding and supporting the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and interphalangeal (IP) joints of the fingers and thumb are common. Injuries  range from minor sprains that resolve with minimal treatment (such as a partia
Page: Flexor tendon injury
Description Injuries to the flexor tendons of the hand can be particularly challenging. Without  finger flexion, patients will have difficulties with many tasks of daily living. The challenge to the surgeon is to re-attach the muscle to the bone in a way
Page: Foot and Ankle topics
  Topic Author(s) Status Comments Achilles tendon disorders Bridget   JB first edit 9 6 Ankle Fractures DRAKE   borrow from this and this and maybe more. SP editing completed. Ankle sprains Joe B     Arthrosis of the ankle and hindfoot DRAKE   borrow from
Page: Fracture and Trauma Topics Instructions for Authors
Dear Authors, At last, the time for work has arrived.  I thank you for your interest and look forward to your contribution to Musculoskeletal Medicine, a free eBook for medical students around the world. We are going to begin with the Trauma section. Base
Page: Fracture Healing
Page: Fractures and Trauma topics
  Topic Author(s) Status Comments Ankle fractures Roosevelt Offoha   Calcaneal fractures Marwan Wiggins Carpal (especially Scaphoid) fractures Kenneth K. Milligan   Cervical spine fractures Nanfang Xu   Clavicular shaft fractures Alexander Froyshteter   C
Page: Front Matter
Series Introduction    Frontline Musculoskeletal Medicine is produced by The Codman Group (an IRS-approved public charity) in collaboration with the United States Bone and Joint Initiative and the Community of Musculoskeletal Educators ( T


Page: Ganglion cysts of the hand and wrist
Description Ganglion cysts are benign, fluid filled, soft-tissue masses found near the joints of the wrist and fingers.   Ganglions usually grow out of the tissues surrounding a joint or a tendon sheath. The most common location for a hand ganglion -- acc
Page: Gout
Description In gout, excessive levels of serum uric acid (sUA) result in the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, triggering acute and chronic inflammation in joints and forming MSU masses (tophi) that damage tissues and joints. Clinical manifest
Page: Growth plate fractures
Growth Plate Fractures Description The growth plate, or physis, is the portion of a long bone that allows for longitudinal growth during childhood. Injuries to this bony area, such as fractures, most frequently can be dealt with in a closed fashion with a


Page: Hallux valgus (bunions)
Page: Hand and Wrist topics
Visit the page Required Hand and Wrist Figures and contribute to the MSK Medicine eBook project. Topic Peer Review Proofreading Editor Arthritis of the Hand Steinberg Joe R incorporated   DL signs off 10/6/14; re-reviewed 1/12/15 Carpal fractures D Bozent
Page: Hand introduction
Introduction   Hello readers,   This is what we have to say.This is what we have to say.This is what we have to say.This is what we have to say.This is what we have to say.This is what we have to say.This is what we have to say.This is what we have to say
Page: Hindfoot (Calcaneus and Talus) Fractures
Description Fractures of the calcaneus and talus, collectively termed “hindfoot fractures” are typically caused by high-impact forces like falls or motor vehicle accidents.  Calcaneus fractures are the more common; talus fractures, though less common are
Page: Hip dislocation and Acetabular fractures
Description Acetabular fractures are complex injuries associated with intricate, often confusing anatomy, with a recognized potential for long-term disability and progressive joint degeneration. They occur in isolated fashion, or in combination with pelvi
Page: Hip fractures (including neck and peri–trochanteric regions)
Description The majority of hip fractures occur in the geriatric population following minimal trauma (ground level fall) in combination with diminished bone quality. Significant morbidity and mortality can accompany these injuries, with poor baseline func
Home page: Home
This workspace is for the development of the Musculoskeletal Medicine for Medical Students eTextbook - a multidisciplinary collaborative effort to improve musculoskeletal medicine education supported by: deck.startHidden=false 1p
Page: Humeral shaft fractures
Description Humeral Shaft (Diaphysis) can fracture following injury to the arm due to a direct fall or blow, automobile injury, gun shot wound, missile injury, and rarely, due to ball-throwing injuries. It may also result following low-energy injury or fa


Page: Iliotibial band friction syndrome
Page: Index
Alphabetical list of all pages including sections and chapters in Musculoskeletal Medicine eBook {index}{index}
Page: Injuries Chapter Outline
Descriptions of sections for chapters using the Injuries template for Fractures and trauma topics in the Musculoskeletal Medicine eBook: Section Heading What should be included here Description One or two sentences that describes the injury. Try to say so
Page: Interdigital neuroma
Page: Intervertebral disc
Page: Introduction and Topic Headings for DDH
Introduction The term DDH is an acronym for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. This is a condition of the child's hip which may come to light in the neonatal period or during infancy and rarely during childhood where there is a dysplasia of the acetabulu


Page: Juvenile Arthritis


Page: Kienbock's disease
Description Kienböck’s disease is the eponym for avascular necrosis of the lunate, the bone between the scaphoid and triquetrum in the center of the proximal row of the carpus.  Left untreated, this disorder results in fragmentation with progressive colla
Page: Knee (femoral–tibial) dislocation
Description Dislocation of the knee occurs when the tibia and femur are out of place in relation to each other. Although rare, dislocation of the knee may be the most serious acute knee injury and presents one of the few true orthopaedic emergencies. Imme


Page: Lateral and medial epicondylitis of the elbow
Description Epicondylitis of the elbow is a misnomer because it is neither primarily a disease of the epicondyle, nor is it exclusively inflammatory (as the suffix “itis” would suggest). Instead, epicondylitis is a condition of degenerative tendinopathy w
Page: Ligament
Physiologic Function Mechanics Proprioception Normal Histology Cell types Extracellular matrix arrangement Neurovascular supply Development and Aging Development   Aging   Pathophysiology Biology of ligament rupture and repair Biology of genetic ligament
Page: Lisfranc injuries
Page: Literature on MSK Medicine Education
Page: Loose bodies in the elbow
Page: Lumbar spinal stenosis
Page: Lumbar disc herniation
Page: Lumbar Disc Herniations
Objectives The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of lumbar degenerative disc disease. By the end of this chapter, the reader should be able to: Understand the anatomy and pathophysiology of lumbar degenerative disc disease and intervertebr
Page: Lyme Disease


Page: Mallet finger and other finger extensor injuries
Description  A mallet finger results from a separation of the extensor digitorum from its insertion on the distal phalanx. This separation by tearing away (technically, an "avulsion")  results from hyperflexion of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint. A
Page: Meniscal tears
Page: Meniscus
Page: Metacarpal fractures
 Description The metacarpals are essential for hand function. Fractures to these bones may affect hand strength and motion, inhibiting the ability to grip and hold objects. Fractures are often the result of high-energy impact, likely seen in athletics, tr
Page: Metatarsal fractures
Description Metatarsal fractures are common injuries to the foot often sustained with direct blows to the foot or twisting forces. If adequately assessed these fractures are easy to treat and have a favorable prognosis. However, if they go on to malunion
Page: Midfoot trauma: Lisfranc Injury
Description An injury to the tarsometatarsal joint is known by the eponym “Lisfranc injury”. These are either sprains of the midfoot ligaments or fractures or a combination of the two. These are relatively rare injuries, but when they occur they can be se
Page: Morton's Neuroma
Description Morton's neuroma (also known as an intermetatarsal or interdigital neuroma) is a common cause of forefoot pain. It presents as a sharp, burning sensation in the web-space between the toes; most typically, it is found between the 3rd and 4th to
Page: Multiple myeloma
Multiple Myeloma Description Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy which consists of a clonal proliferation of plasma cells.  The skeletal manifestations are frequent and varied in number and appearance.  Clinical Manifestations    Multiple myeloma
Page: Muscle
Page: Muscular Dystrophy
Muscular Dystrophy Description Muscular dystrophy is a group of muscle disorders which cause progressive muscle weakness and neurological dysfunction in affected individuals. Epidemiology Muscular dystrophy is one of the most common genetically inherited
Page: Musculoskeletal Conditions Instructions for Authors
Dear Authors, We thank you for your interest and look forward to your contribution to Musculoskeletal Medicine, a free eBook for medical students and primary care physicians around the world. Here are the steps for you to follow: Step #1: Get an account M


Page: Necrotizing fasciitis
Description Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and rapidly progressive infection of the subcutaneous tissue that presents a surgical emergency. The infection moves along fascial planes, destroying fascia and fat, while sparing the underlying muscle tissue, a
Page: Nerve
Page: Neurofibromatosis
Description Neurofibromatosis is a genetically-inherited autosomal dominant disorder that causes tumors throughout the cutaneous and nervous systems.  There are two main types of neurofibromatosis: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), also known as von Reckli
Page: Non-ossifying fibroma
Non-ossifying Fibroma Description Non-ossifying fibroma is a cortically based benign lesion of bone wherein the normal bone has failed to form during skeletal growth and the area instead contains fibrous tissue.  Non-ossifying fibroma goes by many names w


Page: Olecranon bursitis
Description Olecranon bursitis is a condition in which the soft tissue overlying the olecranon at the elbow is inflamed.  Inflammation of the olecranon bursa can be the result of  repetitive use, direct trauma or inflammatory conditions such as gout or rh
Page: Olecranon fractures
Description The olecranon is a bony prominence of the ulna that represents that bone’s most proximal posterior surface at the elbow. While the olecranon is an attachment site for several muscle groups including the flexor carpi ulnaris and anconeus, the m
Page: Orthopaedic Oncology topics
  Topic Author(s) Status Comments Chondrosarcoma       Ewings Sarcoma       Multiple myeloma       Non-ossifying fibroma       Osteoid osteoma       Osteosarcoma       Pagets disease       Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis       An approach to skeletal met
Page: OrthopaedicsOne
The MSK Medicine for Medical Students eTextbook is published on the OrthopaedicsOne Platform. OrthopaedicsOne is a collaborative orthopaedic knowledge network, a repository of educational materials and a professional network for the exchange of informatio
Page: Osgood Schlatters disease
Introduction First described in 1903 by Osgood 1 and Schlatter2 tibial apophysitis or Osgood-Schlatter Syndrome (OSS) is characterized by proximal anterior tibia pain resulting from inflammation at the tendon-bone junction of the patellar tendon and its i
Page: Osgood-Schlatter Syndrome (Tibial Apophysitis)
Introduction First described in 1903 by Osgood 1 and Schlatter2 tibial apophysitis or Osgood-Schlatter Syndrome (OSS) is characterized by proximal anterior tibia pain resulting from inflammation at the tendon-bone junction of the patellar tendon and its i
Page: Osteoarthritis of the knee
Page: Osteochondritis dissecans
Page: Osteogenesis imperfecta
Description Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare, genetic disease of type I collagen with a spectrum of clinical manifestations which classically include recurrent fractures, blue sclerae, dental abnormalities, and hearing loss. While there is no cure f
Page: Osteoid osteoma
Osteoid Osteoma Description Osteoid osteoma is a benign lesion consisting of an active osteoid producing lesion surrounded by a reactive layer of host bone.  The lesion is often small, but very symptomatic for the patient. Clinical Manifestations    Osteo
Page: Osteomalacia
Page: Osteomyelitis, adult
Description Osteomyelitis, though derived from Greek roots meaning ‘inflammation of the bone and bone marrow’, is not a inflammatory condition, per se.  The term refers specifically to infection of the bone. Osteomyelitis is distinct from other infectious
Page: Osteomyelitis, pediatric
Page: Osteonecrosis
Description Osteonecrosis , also called AVascular Necrosis (hence the initials “AVN”), refers to bone infarction (that is, tissue death caused by an interruption of the  blood supply) near a joint.  (The generic term “bone infarction” is typically applied
Page: Osteoporosis
Description Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing to an increased risk of fractures. Clinical manifestations Osteoporosis is a silent disease and does not produce any symptoms until the time of fractur
Page: Osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma Description Osteosarcoma is a malignant cancer of the bone. While there are many variants of the disease, the conventional type makes up approximately 75% of diagnoses.   Clinical Manifestations Signs and symptoms of this disease are those as


Page: Paget's disease of bone
Description Paget’s disease of bone (PDB), also known as osteitis deformans, is a skeletal disorder characterized by focal accelerated bone remodeling. Although it is most often asymptomatic, PDB can lead to both skeletal complications (including bone pai
Page: Pagets disease
Paget’s Disease Description Paget’s Disease also known as osteitis deformans or osteodystrophia deformans, is a metabolic bone disease in which the body is unable to complete the normal bone growth cycle. This leads to the growth of abnormally large and w
Page: Participating Organisations
The Musculoskeletal Medicine eTextbook is a unique coalition of healthcare organizations, industry, government and individuals who care about improving bone and joint education. We thank all who are supporting and participating in the creation of the eTex
Page: Patella fractures
Description Fractures of the patella disrupt the connection between the quadriceps and the tibia and thus disrupt knee extension. Even if that acute impairment is treated and extension is restored, painful patello-femoral arthritis may result. Epidemiolog
Page: Patella instability
Description Patella instability is a generic term that describes abnormal lateral subluxation or dislocation of the patella out of the trochlear groove of the femur. This condition is normally found in young, active individuals. An acute patella dislocati
Page: Patellar tendonitis (jumper's knee)
Page: Pediatric spinal trauma
Description Four generalized injury patterns have been recognized in pediatric spine trauma: fracture, fracture with subluxation, subluxation or dislocation alone, and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA). While these injuries are
Page: Pediatric topics
  Topic Author(s) Status Comments Blount’s disease Carlos Uquillas   Cerebral Palsy Easwar T.R   Club foot Edward D   Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Easwar T.R   Down Syndrome (Musculoskeletal Effects) Osy N   Growth plate fractures Vince P   Juvenile
Page: Pelvic Fractures (excluding Acetabular fractures)
Description Pelvic fractures are the result of high-energy trauma and display significant mortality ranging from 5.6% to 15%. The mortality rate for pelvic fracture with hemorrhagic shock ranges from 36.4%-54%.  Structure and function Pelvis is the key li
Page: Perthes disease of the hip
Legg Calve Perthes Description Legg Calve Perthes (LCP) is juvenile idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head.  While the cause remains unknown, it appears that a vascular insult causes weakening of the femoral epiphysis, making it susceptible to defor
Page: Phalangeal (hand) fracture
Description Phalangeal fractures  of the finger are typically due to direct blows to the hand.  Most phalangeal fractures are treated with a splint, but unstable fractures may require surgical treatment to prevent complications such as stiffness and malun
Page: Photo of surgical release of trigger finger
Page: Photos of examination of lateral epicondylitis
Page: Physical Examination topics
Include physical examination outline
Page: Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis
Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis Description   Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS) is a benign condition in which the body’s synovium is inflamed and accumulates deposits of hemosiderin. Xanthomatosis and benign synovioma, also refer to PVNS. Clinical
Page: Plantar fasciitis
Description Plantar fasciitis is a common source of pain along the sole, or plantar surface, of the foot.  The etiology of the condition is thought to be overuse, with traction and shear forces applied to the plantar fascia; it is not an inflammatory cond
Page: Posterior cruciate ligament injuries
Page: Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction
Page: Primary hyperparathyroidism
Description Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the most common cause of an elevated calcium level in the outpatient setting.  PHPT is characterized by hypercalcemia and an elevated or non-suppressed (inappropriately normal) parathyroid hormone (PTH) le
Page: Proximal Humerus (shoulder) fractures
Description Proximal humerus fractures are common orthopaedic injuries that usually occur as a result from a direct blow to the shoulder, either in a fall or as the result of a high-energy trauma. They usually can be treated conservatively with immobiliza
Page: Puncture wounds of the foot



Page: Radial Head fractures
Description Radial head fractures are the most common type of elbow fractures in adults.  Perhaps counter-intuitively, fractures of the radial head (which is part of the elbow) typically occur after a fall on an outstretched hand. The impact from the fall
Page: Raynaud’s disease
Page: Raynaud’s Phenomenon
Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) was first described in 1862 by Maurice Raynaud. It is thought to be related to a complex connection of inappropriate vascular constriction of the digital arteries and arterioles, alpha-2 adrenergic response involving the sympathe
Page: Renal osteodystrophy
Description Renal osteodystrophy refers to the complex changes in bone that occur in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).  These changes accompany the multiple alterations in mineral metabolism in CKD, including changes in calcium, phosphorous, par
Page: Required Hand and Wrist Figures
Please check the list below to see if you have figures in your personal library that you can contribute. 1) Click on the figure page title link below. If the page already has a figure on it click Edit and then continue with step 2. If the page does not ha
Page: Retrocalcaneal bursitis
Differential Diagnosis: Achilles tendon tear Achilles tendoniitis Plantar fasciitis
Page: Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic
Description Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease and chronic inflammatory disorder predominantly affecting synovial joints. It is characterized by symmetric joint involvement, with swelling and tenderness along with systemic inflammation. Un
Page: Rheumatoid disorders of the foot and ankle
Description   Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory condition where the body’s immune system attacks the joints and causes inflammation of the joint lining (synovium).. Typically RA is a symmetrical polyarthritis, affecting multi
Page: Rheumatoid spine
Page: Rheumatology topics
  Topic Author(s) Status Comments Arthritis of the hip     Bursitis of the knee and hip David Feinstein   Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome David Sherry   Deep Vein Thrombosis James Ho   Fibromyalgia Chadwick Johr   Gout Daria B. Crittenden, Michael Pillinge
Page: Rib fractures
Description Rib fractures are common injuries, occurring in approximately 10% of trauma patients. They may occur anywhere along the bone, however are most frequently seen along the posteriolateral bend where the rib is the weakest. Structure and function
Page: Rotator cuff Disorders


Page: Scaphoid fractures
Description The scaphoid (also known as the carpal navicular) is perhaps the most important of the eight carpal bones. The scaphoid links the carpal bones closest to the radius and ulna, the so-called the “proximal row,” to those articulating with the met
Page: Scapular dysfunction
Page: Scapular fractures (including glenoid)
Description Scapula fractures are closely associated with high-energy trauma and often accompanied by numerous comorbid injuries, which are directly responsible for the patient prognosis.  Consequently, fracture diagnosis is often delayed due to associate
Page: Scoliosis
Description Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine occurring most commonly in the thoracic, thoracolumbar and lumbar spine.  Although the frontal view (coronal plane) is the most commonly recognized aspect of the deformity, it is important to rec
Page: Septic Arthritis, adult
Page: Septic arthritis, pediatric
Description Septic arthritis is the inflammation of a joint due to a bacterial, viral or fungal infection. Clinical Manifestations   Patients with septic arthritis usually present with findings localized to the involved joint.  Symptoms usually come on qu
Page: Series Introduction
Frontline Musculoskeletal Medicine is produced by The Codman Group (an IRS-approved public charity) in collaboration with the United States Bone and Joint Initiative and the Community of Musculoskeletal Educators ( The series' mission is t
Page: Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies
Page: Shoulder and Elbow topics
  Topic Author(s) Status Comments Arthritis of the Acromioclavicular joint Will Postma   Arthritis of the elbow Michael Kessler   Arthritis of the Gleno-humeral joint Matt Johansen John Johansen   Acromioclavicular joint separation Megan Paulus   Adhesive
Page: Shoulder dislocation,acute
Page: Shoulder instability
Description   Shoulder dislocation is a common orthopaedic injury that occurs via either a traumatic or atraumatic mechanism.  Traumatic dislocation, the subject of this chapter, is far more common and overwhelmingly occurs in the anteroinferior direction
Page: Sidebars
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Page: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Description Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) occurs when the femoral head is displaced from the femoral neck and shaft along the physis (growth plate). Since the femoral head is secured by the acetabulum, the neck and shaft slip relative to the he
Page: Spina bifida
Spina Bifida Description Spina Bifida, which means “cleft spine”, is a condition in which a child is born with incomplete development of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges as a result of incomplete closure of the neural tube. It is idiopathic but may be
Page: Spinal infection (Disc space, epidural, vertebral osteo)
Page: Spine topics
  Topic Author(s) Status Comments         Anklylosing spondylitis     Cord syndromes (Anterior, Central, Posterior,Brown-Sequard syndrome)     Back pain, mechanical     Cauda Equina Syndrome     Cervical stenosis and myelopathy Sushil Basra   Cervical rad
Page: Spondylolisthesis
Page: Spondylolysis
Page: Sports Medicine topics
  Topic Megan? FIGURES FOUND Comments Anterior cruciate ligament injuries Lenny Radomski Chetan S. Modi   Chondromalacia patella     Chondral lesions of the hip     Collateral ligament injuries of the knee Eric Linford   Exertional Compartment Syndrome Ry
Page: Sternal fractures and sternoclavicular joint injuries
Page: Stress fractures
Page: Stress fractures of the foot
  Description Stress fractures occur when a cycle of repetitive forces, none on their own sufficient to cause injury, is applied such that these forces can, cumulatively, damage the bone. In cases where the bone is entirely healthy and the cause is simply
Page: Suprascapular neuropathy and compression neuropathies of the shoulder
Page: Surface Anatomy of the Hand and Wrist
LANDMARK   Anatomic significance Clinical significance Examination Misc Triceps muscle/tendon   Extends elbow using radial nerve May avulse from olecranon; be functionally disrupted with olecranon fracture have patient actively extend—but remember to posi
Page: Synovium
Page: Systemic lupus erythematosus
Description Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies to components of the cell nucleus in association with pleiomorphic clinical manifestations involving almost all organ systems.  SLE i


Page: Table of Contents
Frontline Musculoskeletal Medicine Series Editors: Joseph Bernstein, Christian Veillette Mission: "To serve as a free, up-to-date, peer-reviewed educational resource for students and practitioners, thereby improving the welfare of patients" Section Editor
Page: Talar and sub-talar disorders
Page: Talar fractures and dislocations
Description Talar fractures and dislocations are relatively uncommon orthopaedic injuries resulting from high energy impacts such as severe motor vehicle accidents or falls from significant height. Their importance lies in the fact that the talus is integ
Page: Talar Fractures and Dislocations v1
Description Instructions for authors One or two sentences that describes the injury. Try to say something beyond the obvious. An apt comment might be “Geriatric hip fractures are low energy injuries typically associated with osteoporosis, and a (perhaps s
Page: Tarsal tunnel syndrome
Description   Tarsal tunnel syndrome, the lower extremity analog of the far more common carpal tunnel syndrome in the wrist, is a condition that causes pain in the foot due to compression of the tibial nerve with the tarsal tunnel. The tarsal tunnel is lo
Page: Tendinitis of the foot and ankle (non-Achilles)
Description In addition to the important and easily palpated Achilles tendon crossing the ankle on its posterior aspect, there are tendons crossing on the anterior, medial and lateral aspects of the ankle as well.  These are, respectively, the tibialis an
Page: Tendon
Page: TFCC injury
Description The triangular fibrocartilage complex  (TFCC) is a soft tissue structure covering the distal ulna at the wrist, which serves to help stabilize the wrist and transmit load across the wrist joint. Because of its anatomic complexity and the force
Page: Thoracic outlet syndrome
Page: Thoraco-lumbar fractures
Description The thoraco-lumbar area of the spine is the most common site of spinal fractures representing 72.5 % of all spinal fractures in the U.S. each year. Most of these injuries are a direct result of a high impact traumatic force that disrupts the 3
Page: Throwing injuries to the elbow
Description Instability of the elbow resulting from injury severely compromises the action of the overhand throwing motion. The medial collateral ligament (MCL, also known as the ulnar collateral ligament), supplying 54% of stability during 90o elbow flex
Page: Tibial plateau fractures
Description Tibial Plateau fractures involve the proximal articular surface of the tibia.  These fractures can vary from mild displacement to severe comminution and are commonly associated with soft tissue injuries.  Patients age, bone quality and mechani
Page: Tibial shaft fractures
Description Tibial shaft fractures are the most common long bone fracture. They can be the result of high energy traum, such as a motor vehicle accident, or low energy mechanisms, such as a slide tackle in a soccer game. The significance of these fracture
Page: Torticollis
Description Torticollis is the pathologic twisting of the neck usually due to contraction or shortening of the cervical muscles.  Torticollis can be either an acquired or congenital condition. Clinical Manifestations Congenital Muscular Torticollis, the m
Page: Trigger finger
Description Stenosing tenosynovitis, also known as “trigger finger,” is a condition in which the flexor tendons of the fingers may get caught within their sheaths thereby limiting movement and causing pain. When the tendons are caught, the finger can get


Page: Ulnar and Radial Shaft Fractures
Description In adults, simultaneous fractures of the shaft of the ulna and radius (the so-called "both bone fractures") are most often the consequence of a direct blow to the forearm or other high energy mechanisms.  In the adult, these injuries usually r


Page: Vertebral compression fractures


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Home Contents Contributors Acknowledgements


Page: Xray of fat pad sign
Anterior Fat Pad Sign.tif
Page: Xrays of classic Colles fracture
Page: Xrays of metacarpal base fracture Bennett fracture
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