The ability to accurately screen and select orthopaedic resident applicants with eventual successful outcomes has been historically difficult. Many preresidency selection variables are subjective in nature and a more standardized objective scoring method seems desirable. A quantitative composite scoring tool (QCST) to be used in a standardized manner to help predict orthopaedic residency performance from application materials was developed. In 64 orthopaedic residents, four predictors (United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Part I scores, Alpha Omega Alpha status, junior year clinical clerkship honors grades, and the QCST score) were analyzed with respect to four residency outcomes assessments. The outcomes included three standardized assessments, the orthopaedic in-training examination scores (OITE), the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) written and oral examinations, and an internal outcomes assessment, attainment of satisfactory chief resident associate (CRA) status. Collectively, the QCST score had the strongest association as a predictor for all three standardized outcomes assessments (p < 0.001). Honors grades during junior years clinical clerkships was most strongly associated with satisfactory CRA status (p < 0.001). A composite scoring tool that is an effective predictor of orthopaedic resident outcomes can be developed. Additional work is still required to refine this scoring tool for orthopaedic residency screening and selection.