Cervical spine anatomy

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ALL    -           C1 to sacrum

                        Attached to vertebral bodies

                        Gets wider as move caudal


PLL     -           C2 to sacrum

                        Attached to discs

                        Gets narrower as move caudal


Tectorial membrane     -           continuation of PLL

                                                C2 to foramen magnum

                                                Behind cruciate ligament / alar / apical ligaments


Anterior / posterior atlanto-occipital membranes

                        From arch C1 to foramen magnum

                        Posterior deficient to allow C1 nerve and vertebral artery through


Cruciate ligament        -           transverse – attached across atlas

                                                Longitudinal – from body C2 to foramen magnum


Apical ligament           -           weak

                                                Tip of dens to foramen magnum

                                                Remnant of notochord


Alar ligaments             -           strong

                                                Oblique to apical

                                                Attached to foramen magnum

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