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Thoracic disc disease - Anand classification

Classification

Grade 1: Predominant thoracic central (axial) pain

Grade 2: Predominant thoracic radicular pain

Grade 3A: Significant axial and thoracic radicular pain

Grade 3B: Significant axial and lower leg pain with or without thoracic radicular pain

Grade 4: Myelopathy but not significant motor weakness

Grade 5: Paretic or paralytic (significant motor weakness)

Explanation

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Figures

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Reference(s)

Anand N, Regan JJ. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for thoracic disc disease: Classification and outcome study of 100 consecutive cases with a 2-year minimum follow-up period. Spine. 2002 Apr. 15;27(8):871-879.

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