Access Keys:
Skip to content (Access Key - 0)



  • (Osteocartilaginous Exostosis, OCE)
  • Thought to arise at a peripheral portion of physis where an abnormal focus of metaplastic cartilage forms as a consequence of trauma or congenital perichondrial deficiency; esponding to the same stimuli as the growth plate; grows only until skeletal maturity is reached (slow growth after that from cap)(Virchow)


  • Increasing size or evidence of activity in adulthood has an increased likelihood of malignant transformation


  • Most common benign bone tumor (35.8% of all benign tumors, 8.5% overall) (if NOF is not considered a tumor)
  • 75% <20 years of age
  • M:F = 3:1
  • 40% about the knee
  • May be an incidental radiographical finding found on a trauma radiograph
  • Pain may represent:
    • Irritation of surrounding tissues: nerves, tendons, tendons, muscles
  • Costal osteochondromas extending into a neuroforamen have been reported to cause spinal cord compression sxs
  • Associated bursal sac and "bursitis"
  • Fx through the stalk (may heal) ? nonunion, infarction of bony region or cap, ischemic necrosis
  • Pseudoaneurysm after a tear of a local artery. chronic compression of the vein, displacement of vessels
  • May cause palpable mass ? radiculopathy or myelopathy when in a spinal location (1-4% of solitary osteochondromas and in 7-9% of pts with MHE)
  • MRI and CT useful in planning excision
  • Can be intraspinal
  • Hoarseness, dysphagia, and a pharyngeal mass reported when occurring in a cervical location
  • Association with osteomyelitis
  • Malignant transformation
    • May be found after XRT (15-65 Gy), eg, after total body XRT for childhood neoplasia
      • 12% incidence of radiation-induced osteochondromas following irradiation for childhood malignancy
  • Has been reported after a diaphyseal fx
  • ? cosmetic deformity
  • Has been reported as a cause of vertigo in an C2 location


  • Pedunculated (usually pointing away from physis) or sessile, with calcific densities in stalk or cap
  • Erosion into an adjacent bone
  • Metaphyseal location if the defect occurred late in childhood, diaphyseal if early (growth away from physis)
  • Bone scan
  • Directly correlated with degree of enchondral bone formation
  • More prominent uptake in younger pts
  • ? activity persists well beyond time of skeletal maturity
  • Quiescent lesions without ? uptake more frequent in older pts
  • IM canal connection with medullary bone of the OCE, may need CT to demonstrate (pathognomonic
  • CT is often helpful to determine approach
  • CT is not reliable in depicting cartilage caps < 2.5 cm in thickness
  • Nonmineralized areas of cartilage cap are lower in attenuation than muscle, due to its high water content (75-80%)
  • MRI demonstrates thickness of cap (as thick as 3 cm in adolescents and < 1 cm in adults), associated bursal sac (exostosis bursata), soft tissue mass with malignant degeneration, associated soft tissue abnormalities, largely replacing myelography in spinal lesions (cervical compression more common in the multiple form), and IM canal connection with medullary bone of the OCE
  • Stalk is isointense with bone marrow
  • Cartilage cap shows intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images
  • Malignant degeneration with ? signal intensity on T1-weighted images and ? signal intensity on T2-weighted images
  • Angiogram/venogram helpful when vessels involved
  • Unusual location: clavicle, scaphoid
  • Forearm deformity classification (in MHE)
    • Type I: distal ulnar osteochondroma with ulnar shortening/radial bowing
    • Type IIa: proximal radial osteochondroma with radial head dislocation
    • Type IIB: distal ulnar osteochondroma with radial head dislocation
    • Type III: distal radial osteochondroma with radial shortening
  • Associated measurements include radial articular angle and carpal slip


  • Pedunculated or sessile stalk, contiguous with the IM marrow
  • No absolute #cm for cartilage cap thickness, however it is generally accepted that >4cm is going to be found malignant (some authors have used 1-3cm) (should not thicken after age 30)
  • Lesion may be extremely large and still benign


  • Cortical and medullary bone of the tumor blends into the normal bone
  • Cartilage cap can be extremely thick in children, can be resorbed by enchondral ossification in adults
  • Dystrophic calcifications, esp in larger lesions
  • Variable amounts of cellularity and even double-nucleated chondrocytes
  • Cap may show necrotic changes
  • Fibrous tissue overlying the cartilaginous cap contains mesenchymal cells (stain + for FGF receptor 3 and collagen type IIa) responsible for osteochondroma growth


  • Fong's disease
  • Supracondylar (supracondyloid) process of the humerus
  • Bony spurs (enthesophytes), osteophytes
  • Malignant peripheral cartilagenous lesions
  • Parosteal osteosarcoma
  • Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation of the hand or foot
  • Turret exostosis (post-traumatic subperiosteal hematoma dorsally on a phalanx which has ossified)


  • Asymptomatic lesions require no tx, may be symptomatic because of a subtendenous location
  • Excision, don't leave cartilage 'nubbins' or perichondrium around the cap behind
  • LR reported to be 1.8%
  • Fx of the sessile stalk may result in infarction of the lesion
  • Growth arrest may occur with resection (partial resection prior to physeal closure may be preferable is sxs warrant early tx)
  • Coxa valga, forearm bowing, or other growth disturbances ? ? ROM
  • Tx of forearm deformity (92% satisfactory results)
    • Type I: excision of osteochondroma, lengthening/osteotomy of radius
    • Type IIa: excision of osteochondroma and of radial head
    • Type IIb: excision of osteochondroma, gradual ulnar lengthening
    • Type III: excision of osteochondroma alone
  • Distal tibial/fibular osteochondromas may cause ankle pronation deformity, ? ROM, may require fibular osteotomy to allow resection (think MHE with aggressive lesions)
  • Bursal formation ??intrabursal loose bodies may simulate malignant radiographic appearance
  • Patellofemoral sxs reported from a sessile lesion in the distal femur
  • Pathologic fx after excision can be avoided with strict post-excision protection or prophylactic IF
  • Lesions involving the pelvis or scapula should be considered to be resected because of difficulty in following the lesion
  • Vascular injury (arterial or venous stenosis, vessel laceration, or pseudoaneurysm), chronic venous stasis or DVT
  • Neurological compromise
  • Brachial plexus injury from proximal humeral OCE reported
  • Malignant transformation may be heralded by onset of pain (<<<1%)



    • Aka Multiple chondromatosis, multiple hereditary exostoses, MHE)
    • Hereditary: AD (½ of M and F children born to a parent with the disorder will have it also)
    • Short stature, LLD, valgus deformities of knee/ankle, asymmetry of pectoral/pelvic girdles, bowing of the radius/ulnar deviation of the wrist/subluxation of the radiocapitellar joint
    • Circumferential lesions a manifestation of this entity
    • 1/50,000 prevalence (Chamorros in Guam and Ojibway Indian community of Pauingassi in Manitoba have higher rates)
    • M=F
    • Up to 3/16 of those affected in a generation of familial MHE reported to develop sarcomatous degeneration
    • Wavy pelvis sign
      • Undulating contour of the pelvis on CT scan
    • Exostosin (EXT) gene abnormalities
      • EXT-1
        • 49 different mutations found
      • EXT-2
        • 25 different mutations found
      • G-to-T transversion in ext2 gene (11p13)(50%) and ext1 (8q24.1)(33%)
      • Other genes (17%): ext3, extl
      • EXT genes involved in heparin sulfate synthesis
      • EXT genes important in Indian hedgehog/parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Ihh/PTHLH) growth plate signaling pathways
    • Regulate chondrocyte maturation and differentiation
    • Encode endoplasmic reticulum-resident type II transmembrane glycoproteins involved in the regulation of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans which are important for the diffusion of cell-signaling molecules (Indian hedgehog)
    • Secondary chondrosarcoma reported from 0.5% to 25%
    • (See under Skeletal Dysplasias....Tumor-like Bone Dysplasias)

    • Described by Maroteaux in 1971
      • The term metachondromatosis describes the evolving nature of the chondromatous lesions
      • AD
        • Exostosin (EXT) gene mutation
          • EXT-1
          • EXT-2
    • Multiple metaphyseal juxtaepiphyseal exostoses
      • Characteristically point toward the adjacent joint
      • May involve hands/feet
      • No shortening of the limbs is present
    • Metaphyseal enchondromas
      • Different from multiple enchondromatosis by often involving iliac crests and metaphyses of long bonesPeriarticular calcifications
      • Due to peripheral enchondral ossification in epiphysis-based exophytic enchondromas
    • Unilateral or bilateral Legg-Calve-Perthes-like changes in the femoral head(s)
      • Perhaps due to lesional interference with the epiphyseal blood supply
    • Secondary malignancy has been reported (intermediate grade chondrosarcoma)


    • (Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome)
    • Multiple exostoses
    • Caused by a deletion of ext1 and adjacent trps1 gene

    • (Subungual osteochondroma)
    • Arises in the distal phalanx beneath the nailbed, may cause ulceration and secondary infection
    • Usually involves the great toe

    • (Trevor's disease, hemimelic epiphyseal dysplasia, tarsoepiphyseal aclasia)
    • Classification (Azouz)
      • Localized form (usually affects hindfoot or ankle)
      • Classical form (hemimelic distribution, multiple involvement in a single extremity)
        • > 2/3 of cases
      • Localized to the ankle:
        • Mouchet type
      • Localized to the foot:
        • Belot type
      • Generalized or severe form (involvement of whole LE from pelvis to ankle ? UE ? chest wall)
      • ? hypertrophy of ipsilateral ilium
      • ? hip dislocation
      • An epiphyseal osteochondroma, usually found before young adulthood, most commonly affecting the (½) talus or distal femur or tibia; reported in acetabulum and proximal femur
      • May be associated with genu valgum, genu varum, or ankle equinus
      • Has been reported causing carpal instability or limited ROM
      • Painless swelling or deformity of the joint(s)
      • May affect one or both sides of a joint
      • Progress to DJD without intervention
      • 12.5% have been reported to progress to DJD even with intervention
      • Occurrence with a metaphyseal osteochondroma in the same limb has been reported
      • Excision (even if not complete) results in symptomatic improvement
      • Has been reported in a pt with polydactylies and syndactylies of all 4 limbs and bilateral distal tibial lesions
      • MRI may reveal associated ligamentous abnormalities (86% about the ankle)
      • M:F = 3:1
      • Multiple bones in the same, bilateral, or generalized extremity(ies) may be affected severely compromising function
      • Up to 75% may have multiple site involvement
      • Multifocal calcifications adjacent to the epiphysis coalesce as an osteochondroma
      • Histologically the same as an osteochondroma


Abd-el-Naby W, Hammond T, Court-Brown CM: Atypical osteochondroma of the distal femur. Orthopedics 23:725-6,2000.
Abrahams TG, Whitten CG, Jones M, Dorfman HJ: Case report 632: Parosteal osteochondromatous hamartoma associated with Trevor's disease (dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica). Skeletal Radiol 20:47-52,1991.
Ahmed AR, Tan TS, Unni KK, Collins MS, Wenger DE, Sim FH: Secondary chondrosarcoma in osteochondroma: report of 107 patients. CLin Orthop Relat Res 411:193-206,2003.
Ahn J, Ludecke HJ, Lindow S, : Cloning of the putative tumor suppressor gene for hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT1). Nat Genet 11:137-43,1995.
Akagi S, Hashiguchi J, Sasai K, Kato I, Saito T, Ogawa R: Osteochondroma of the upper cervical spine presenting as vertigo. Orthopedics 26:187-188,2003.
Albrecht S, Crutchfield JS, SeGall GK: On spinal osteochondroma. J Neurosurg 77:247-52,1992.
Al-Harthy A, Rayan GM: Phalangeal osteochondroma: a cause of childhood trigger finger. Br J Plast Surg 56:161-3,2003.
Anastasi GW, Wertheimer HM, Brown JR: Popliteal aneurysm with osteochondroma of the femur. Arch Surg 87:636-9,1963.
Antonio ZP, Alejandro RM, Luis MRJ, Jose GR: Femur osteochondroma and secondary pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 126:127-30,2006.
Arasil E, Erdem A, Yüceer N: Osteochondroma of the upper cervical spine: a case report. Spine 17:961-4,1996.
Arms DM, Strecker WB, Manske PR, Schoenecker PL: Management of forearm deformity in multiple hereditary osteochondromatosis. J Pediatr Orthop 17:450-4,1997.
Azouz EM: MRI of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Pediatr Radiol 26:904,1996.
Azouz EM, Slomic AM, Archambault H: Upper extremtiy involvement in Trevor disease. J Can Assoc Radiol 35:209-11,1984.
Azouz EM, Slomic AM, Marton D, Rigault P, Finidor G: The variable manifextations of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Pediatr Radiol 15:44-9,1985.

Banks RJ: Pathologic fractures: a consideration with metachondromatosis and differential diagnoses. Osteochondromatosis and Gauchers disease. Australas Chiropr Osteopathy 10:105-10,2002.
Barrison RC, Unni KK, McLeod RA, Pritchard DJ, Dahlin DC: Chondrosarcoma arising in osteochondroma. Cancer 49:1890-7,1982.
Barros Filho TE, Oliveira RP, Taricco MA, Gonzalez CH: Hereditary multiple exostoses and cervical ventral protuberance causing dysphagia: A case report. Spine 20:1640-2,1995.
Barta O, Schanzl A, Szepesi J: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Acta Orthop Scand 44:702-9,1973.

Bassett GS, Cowell HR: Metachondromatosis. Report of four cases. J Bone Joint Surg 67A:811-4,1985.
Bates DL, Osborne WM: Post-traumatic osteochondroma of the calcaneus. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 80:606-7,1990.

Beals RK: Metachondromatosis. Clin Orthop 169:167-70,1982.
Beskin JL: An unusual exostosis presenting as a bunion deformity. Am J Orthop 30:567-70,2001.
Bigliani LU, Neer 2nd CS, Parisien M, Johnston AD: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the scapula. J Bone Joint Surg 62A:292-4,1980.
Black B, Dooley J, Pyper A, Reed M: Multiple hereditary exostoses: an epidemiologic study of an isolated community in Manitoba. Clin Orthop 287:212-7,1993.
Bleshman MH, Levy RM: An unusual location of an osteochondroma. Radiology 127:456,1978.
Bloch AM, Nevo Y, Ben-Sira L, Harel S, Shahar E: Winging of the scapula in a child with hereditary multiple exostoses. Pediatr Neurol 26:74-6,2002.
Boccio JR, Silvani S, Karlin J, Scurran B: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. A case report and literature review. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 75:523-6,1985.
Borges AG, Huvos AG, Smith J: Bursa formation and synovial chondrometaplasia associated with osteochondromas. Am J Clin Pathol 75:648-53,1981.

Bovee JV: Multiple osteochondromas. Orphanet J Rare DIs 3:3,2008.

Bovee JV, Harneetman L, Kroon HM, Aigner T, Hogendoom PC: EXT-related pathways are not involved in the pathogenesis of dysplasia-epiphysealis hemimelica and metachondromatosis. J Pathol 209:411-9,2006.
Buckwalter JA, El-Khoury GY, Flatt AE: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the ulna. Clin Orthop 135:36-8,1978.
Burgess RC, Cates H: Deformities of the forearm in patients who have multiple cartilaginous exostosis. J Bone Joint Surg 75:13-8,1993.
Calderoni P, Soncini G, Innao V: Dysplasia epipysealis hemimelica. (A review of 19 cases). Ital J Orthop Traumatol 10:243-9,1984.
Calhou JM, Chadduck WM, Smith JL: Single cervical exostosis. Report of a case and review of the literature. Surg Neurol 37:26-9,1992.
Canella P, Gardini F, Boriani S: Exostosis: development, evolution and relationship to malignant degeneration. Italian J Orthop Traumatol 7:293-8,1981.
Cardelia JM, Dormans JP, Drummond DS, Davidson RS, Duhaime C, Sutton L: Proximal fibular osteochondroma with associated peroneal nerve palsy: a review of six cases. J Pediatr Orthop 15:574-7,1995.
Carlson DH, Wilkinson RH: Variability of unilateral epiphyseal dysplasia (dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica). Radiology 133:369-73,1979.
Carpintero P, Leon P, Safra M, Montero M, Berral FJ: Fractures of osteochoma during physical exercise. Am J Sports Med 31:1003-6,2003.
Carroll KL, Yandow SM, Ward K, Carey JC: Clinical correlation to genetic variations of hereditary multiple exostosis. J Pediatr Orthop 19:785-91,1999.
Castriota-Scanderbeg A, Bonetti MG, Gammisa M, Dallapiccola B: Spontaneous regression of exostoses: two case reports. Pediatr Radiol 25:544-8,1995.
Cates HE, Burgess RC: Incidence of brachydactyly and hand exostosis in hereditary multiple exostoses. J Hand Surg 16A:127-32,1991.
Chin KR, Kharrazi FD, Miller BS, Mankin HJ, Gebhardt MC: Ostoechondromas of the distal aspect of the tibia or fibula. J Bone Joint Surg 82A:1269-78,2000.
Chioros PG, Frankel SL, Sidlow CJ: Unusual osteochondroma of the foot and ankle. J Foot Surg 26:407-11,1987.
Coenen L, Biltjes I: High radial nerve palsy caused by a humeral exostosis: a case report. J Hand Surg 17A:668-9,1992.
Cole AR, Darte JM: Osteochondromata following irradiation in children. Pediatrics 32:285-8,1963.
Cole MM: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the talus. A case study. J Am Podiatry Assoc 61:392-5,1971.
Connor JM, Horan FT, Beighton P: Dysplasia epiphysialis hemimelica: a clinical and genetic study. J Bone Joint Surg 65B:350-4,1983.
Cooke SR, Cumming WJK, Cowie RA: Osteochondroma of the cervical spine: case report and review of the literature. Br J Neurosurg 8:359-63,1994.
Cooley LH, Torg JS: "Pseudowinging" of the scapula secondary to subscapular osteochondroma. Clin Orthop 162:119-24,1982.
Coughlan B, Feliz A, Ishida T, Czerniak B, Dorfman HD: p53 expression and DNA ploidy of cartilage lesions. Hum Pathol 26:620-4,1995.
Crandal BF, Field LL, Sparkes RS, Spence MA: Hereditary multiple exostoses: report of a family. Clin Orthop 190:217-9,1984.
Cruz-Conde R, Amaya S, Vladivia P, Hernandez M, Calvo M: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. J Pediatr Orthop 4:625-9,1984.
Currie J, Beall DP, Ly JQ: Trevor's disease involving the fifth metatarsal of the left foot: a case report. Foot Ankle Int 24:650-2,2003.
Dahl MT: The gradual correction of forearm deformities in multiple hereditary exostoses. Hand Clin 9:707-18,1993.
D'Ambrosia R, Ferguson AB, Jr: The formation of osteochondroma by epiphyseal cartilage transplantation. Clin Orthop 61:103-15,1968.
D'Angio GJ, Ritvo M, Ulin R: Clinical and roentgen manifestations of tarso-epiphyseal aclasis. AJR 74:1068-80,1955.
Danielsson LG, el-Haddad I: Winged scapula due to osteochondroma. Report of 3 children. Acta Orthop Scand 60:728-9,1989.
Danielsson LG, el-Haddad I, Quadros O: Distal tibial osteochondroma deforming the fibula. Acta Orthop Scand 61:469-70,1990.
Davids JR, Glancy GL, Eilert RE: Fracture through the stalk of pedunculated osteochondromas. A report of three cases. Clin Orthop 271:258-64,1991.
Day FN, Ruggieri C, Britton C: Recurrent osteochondroma. J Foot Ankle Surg 37:162-4,1998.
de Palma L, Gigante A, Specchia N: Subungual exostosis of the foot. Foot Ankle Int 17:758-63,1996.
DeVine JH, Rooney RC, Carpenter C, Pitcher JD: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica in an elderly patient. Am J Orthop 26:223-5,1997.
Dietz FR, Mumford JE: A hamartomatous joint mimicking dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the talus. Iowa Orthop J 14:166-70,1994.
Donaldson JS, Sankey HH, Girdany BR, Donaldson WF: Osteochondroma of the distal femoral epiphysis. J Pediatr 43:212-6,1953.
Doyle M, Downey Jr EF: Trevor's disease of the carpal navicular bone: report of a case. J Am Osteopath Assoc 83:793-4,1984.
Duncan G, McCormick C, Tufaro F: The link between heparan sulfate and hereditary bone disease: finding a function for the EXT family of putative tumor suppressor proteins. J Clin Invest 108:511-6,2001.
Eaton BA, Kettner NW, Essman JB: Solitary osteochondroma of the cervical spine. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 18:250-253,1995.
El-Khoury GY, Bassett GS: Symptomatic bursa formation and osteochondromas. AJR 133:895-8,1979.
Enriqueez J, Quiles M, Torres C: A unique case of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the ptella. Clin Orthop 160:168- ,1981.
Esenkaya I: Pseudowinging of the scapula due to subscapular osteochondroma. Orthopedics 28:171-2,2005.
Evison G, Price CHG: Subungual exostosis. Br J Radiol 39:451-5,1966.
Fairbank TJ: Dysplasia epiphysialis hemimelica (tarso-epiphysial aclasis). J Bone Joint Surg 38B:237-57,1956.
Fasting OJ, Bjerkreim I: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Acta Orthop Scand 47:217-225,1976.
Felix NA, Mazur JM, Loveless EA: Acetabular dysplasia associated with hereditary multiple exostoses: a case report. J Bone Joint Surg 82B:555-7,2000.
Ferriter P, Hirschy J, Kesseler H, Scott WN: Popliteal pseudoaneurysm. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg 65A:695-7,1983.
Fisher MR, Hernandez RJ, Poznanski AK, Tachdjian MO: Case report 262. Skeletal Radiol 11:147-50,1984.
Fogel GRT, McElfrosh EC, Peterson HA, Wicklund PT: Management of deformities of the forearm in multiple hereditary osteochondromas. J Bone Joint Surg 66A:670-80,1984.
Francannet C, Cohen-Tanugi A, Le Merrer M, Munnich A, Bonaventure J, Legeai-Mallet L: Genotype-phenotype correlation in hereditary multiple exostoses. J Med Genet 38:430-4,2001.
Fulton H: Dysplasia epiphysialis hemimelica. A M A J Dis Child 95:276-81,1976.
Garrison RC, Unni KK, McLeod RA, Pritchard DJ, Dahlin DC: Chondrosarcoma arising in osteochondroma. Cancer 49:1890-7,1982.
Ganzhorn RW, Bahri G, Horowitz M: Osteochondroma of the distal phalanx. J Hand 6A:625-6,1981.
Geirnaerdt MJ, Bloem JL, Eulderink F, Hogendoorn PC, Taminiau AH: Cartilaginous tumors: correlation of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging and histopathologic findings. Radiology 186:813-7,1993.
Gerrand CH: False aneurysm and brachial plexus palsy complicating a proximal humeral exostosis. J Hand Surg 22B:413-5,1997.
Gerscovich EO, Greenspan A: Computed tomography in the diagnosis of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Can Assoc Radiol J 40:313-5,1989.

Giedion A, Kesztler R, Muggiasca F: The widened spectrum of multiple cartilaginous exostosis (MCE). Pediatr Radiol 3:93-100,1975.
Gordon SL, Buchanan JR, Ladda RL: Hereditary multiple exostoses: report of a kindred. J Med Genet 18:428-30,1981.
Govender S, Parbhoo AH: Osteochondroma with compression of the spinal cord. J Bone Joint Surg 81B:667-9,1999.
Graves SC, Kuester DJ, Richardson EG: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (Trevor disease) presenting as peroneal spastic flatfoot deformity: a case report. Foot & Ankle 12:55-8,1991.
Graviet S, Thomas JL: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica affecting the subtalar joint. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 84:580-2,1994.
Gregory Jr PR, Rooney RJ: Bilateral dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica: a case report. Foot & Ankle 14:35-7,1993.
Greenspan A, Steiner G, Sotelo D, Norman A, Sotelo A, Sotelo-Ortiz F: Mixed sclerosing bone dysplasi coexisting with dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (Trevor-Fairbank disease). Skletal Radiol 15:452-4,1986.
Griffiths HJ, Thompson RC, Jr, Galloway HR, Everson LI, Suh JS: Bursitis in association with solitary osteochondromas presenting as mass lesions. Skeletal Radiol 20:513-6,1991.
Guy NJ, Shett AA, Gibb PA: Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: an unusual presentation of a fibular osteochondroma. Knee 11:497-9,2004.
Hall CR, Cole WG, Haynes R, Hecht JT: Reevaluation of a genetic model for the development of exostosis in hereditary multiple exostosis. Am J Med Genet 112:1-5,2002.
Haritidis J, Tsikouriadis P, Tsakonas A: Osteochondroma of the cervical spine. Case report. Chir Organi Mov 28:251-253,1993.
Harsha WN: The natural history of osteocartilaginous exostoses (osteochondroma). Am Surg 20:65-72,1954.
Hecht JT, Hogne D, Strong LO, Hansen ME, Blanton SH, Wagner M: Hereditary multiple exostosis and chondrosarcoma: linkage to chromosome 19 and loss of heterozygosity for EXT-linked markers on chromosomes 11 and 8. Am J Hum Genet 56:1125-31,1995.
Hecht JT, Hogue D, Wang : Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT): mutational studies of familial EXT1 cases and EXT-associated malignancies. Am J Hum Genet 60:80-6,1997.
Heilbronner DM: Asymmetric dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Orthopedics 11:795-7,1988.
Heiple KG: Carpal osteochondroma. J Bone Joint Surg 43A:861-4,1961.
Hennekam RC: Hereditary multiple exostoses. J Med Genet 28:262-6,1991.
Hensinger RN, Cowell HR, Ramsey PL, Leopold RG: Familial dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica, associated with chondromas and osteochondromas: report of a kindred with variable presentations. J Bone Joint Surg 56A:1513-6,1974.
Herbosa EG, Rotskoff KS: Condylar osteochondroma manifesting as Class III skeletal dysplasia: diagnosis and surgical approach. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 100:472-9,1991.

Herman TE, Chines A, McAlister WH, Gottesman GS, Eddy MC, Whyte MP: Metachondromatosis: report of a family with facial features mildly resembling trichonrhinophalangeal syndrome. Pediatr Radiol 27:436-41,1997.
Herman TE, McAlister WH, Rosenthal D, Dehner LP: Radiation-induced osteochondromas (R10) arising from the neural arch and producing compression of the spinal cord. Skeletal Radiol 20:472-6,1991.
Hershey SL, Lansden FT: Osteochondromas as a cause of false popliteal aneurysms. Review of the literature and report of two cases. J Bone Joint Surg 54A:1765-8,1972.
Ho AMW, Blane CE, Kling Jr TF: The role of arthropgraphy in the management of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Skeletal Radiol 15:224-7,1986.
Hoeffel JC, Capron F, Jung JF, Bernard C: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the ulna. Br J Radiol 60:288-90,1987.
Hoeffel C, Hoeffel JC: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (Trevor's disease) of the distal radius. Acta Orthop Belg 64:343-4,1998.
Hoehn JG, Coletta C: Subungual exostosis of the fingers. J Hand Surg 17A:468-71,1992.
Hudson TM, Springfield DS, Spanier SS, Enneking WF, Hamlin DJ: Benign exostoses and exostotic chondrosarcomas: evaluation of cartilage thickness by CT, Radiology 152:595-9,1984.
Humbert ET, Mehlman C, Crawford AH: Two cases of osteochondroma recurrence after surgical resection. Am J Orthop 300:62-4,2001.

Hunter AG, Kozlowski K, Hochberger O: Metachondromatosis. Can Assoc Radiol J 46:202-8,1995.
Inglis AE, Rubin RM, Lewis RJ, Villacin A: Osteochondroma of the cervical spine. Clin Orthop 126:127-9,1977.
Ippolito E, Tudisco C: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica: clinical, histological and histochemical features. Ital J Orthop Traumatol 9:101-7,1983.
Irani RN, Petrucelli RC: Ulnar lengthening for negative ulnar variance in hereditary multiple osteochondromas. J Pediatr Orthop 12:143-7,1992.
Iwasawa T, Aida N, Kobayashi N, Nishimura G: MRI findings of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Pediatr Radiol 26:65-7,1996.
Jackson A, Hughes D, Forbes WSC, Stewart G, Cummings WJK, Reid H: A case of osteochondroma of the cervical spine. Skeletal Radiol 24:235-7,1995.
Jaffe HL: Hereditary multiple exostosis. Arch Pathol 36:335-57,1943.
Jahss MH, Olives R: The foot and ankle in multiple hereditary exostoses. Foot Ankle 1:128-42,1980.
Jones WT, Jones RO: Solitary osteochondroma of the ankle in a four-year-old. J Foot Surg 21:191-3,1982.
Julien J, Riemens V, Vital C, Lawueny A, Miet G: Cervical cord compression by solitary osteochoncroma of the atlas. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 41:479-81,1978.

Kaissi AA, Roetzer K, Klaushofer K, Grill F: Acroform type of enchondromatosis associated with severe vertebral involvement and facial dysmorphism in a boy with a new variant of enchondromatosis type I1 of Spranger: case report and a reveiw of the literature. Cases J 18:324,2008.
Karasick D, Schweitzer ME, Eshelman DJ: Symptomatic osteochondromas: imaging features. AJR 168:1507-12,1997.
Karr MA, Aulicino PL, DuPuy TE, Gwathney FW: Osteochondromas of the hand in hereditary multiple exostosis: report of a case presenting as a blocked proximal interphalangeal joint. J Hand Surg 9A:264-8,1984.
Katzman H, Waugh T, Berdon W: Skeletal changes following irradiation of childhood tumors. J Bone Joint Surg 51A:825-42,1969.
Kawai A, Mitani S, Okuda K, Aoki K, Inoue H: Ankle tumor in a 5-year-old boy. Clin Orthop 406:308-16,2003.
Keats TE: Dysplasia epiphysialis hemimelica (tarso-epiphyseal aclasis). Radiology 68:558-63,1957.

Kennedy LA: Metachondromatosis. Radiology 148:117-8,1983.
Kenney PJ: The use of computed tomography to distinguish osteochondroma and chondrosarcoma. Radiology 139:129-37,1981.

Keret D, Bassett GS: Avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis in metachondromatosis. J Pediatr Orthop 10:658-61,1990.
Keret D, Spatz DK, Caro PA, Mason DE: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica: diagnosis and treatment. J Pediatr Orthop 12:365-72,1992.
Kettelkamp DB, Campbell CJ, Bonfiglio M: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. J Bone Joint Surg 48A:746-66,1966.
Khosla A, Martin DS, Awwad EZ: The solitary intraspinal vertebral osteochondroma: an unusual cause of compressive myelopathy: features and lterature review. Spine 24:77-81,1999.
Kilpatrick SE, Pike EJ, Ward WG, Pope TL: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma in patients with multiple osteochondromatosis: report of a case and review of the literature. Skeletal Radiol 26:370-4,1997.
Kingbury G, Heiple G: Carpal osteochondroma. J Bone Joint Surg 43A:861-4,1961.
Kingsmill-Moore JM: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Proc R Soc Med 56:891-2,1963.

Kitagawa H, Shimakawa H, SugaharaK: The tumor suppressor EXT-like gene EXTL2 encodes an alpha1, 4-N-acetylhexosaminyltransferase that transfers N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine to the common glycosaminoglycan protein linkage region. The key enzyme for the chain initiation of heparan sulfate. J Biol Chem 274:13933-7,1999.
Kivioja A, Ervasti H, Kinnunen J, Kaitila M, Wolf M, Böhling T: Chondrosarcoma in a family with multiple hereditary exostoses. J Bone Joint Surg 82B:261-6,2000.
Klebuc M, Burrow S, Organek A, Cole W, Zuker R: Osteochondroma as a causal agent in popliteal artery pseudoaneurysms: case report and literature review. J Reconstr Microsurg 17:475-9,2001.
Kojima T, Yanajawa H, Tomonari H: Solitary osteochondroma limiting flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint in an infant. J Hand Surg 17A:1057-9,1992.
Koplas M, Winalski C, Sundaram M: Osteochondroma with large bursa clinically mimcking malignant transformation. Orthopedics 30:505,581-3,2007.

Kozlowski K, Brostrom K, Kennedy J, Lange H, Morris L: Dysspondyloenchondromatosis in the newborn. Report of 4 cases. Pediatr Radiol 24:311-5,1994.

Kozlowski K, Jarrett J: Genochondromatosis II. Pediatr Radiol 22:593-5,1992.

Kozlowski K, Scougali JS: Metachondromatosis: report of a case in a 6 year old boy. Aust Paediatr J 11:42-5,1975.
Krieg JC, Buckwalter JA, Peterson KK, El-Khoury GY, Robinson RA: Extensive growth of an osteochondroma in a skeletally mature patient. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg 77A:269-73,1995.
Krooth RS, Macklin MT, Hilbish TF: Diaphyseal acalasis (multiple exostosis) on Guam. Am J Hum Genet 13:340-7,1961.
Kuo RS, Bellemore MC, Monsell FP, Frawley K, Kozlowski K: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica: clinical features and management. J Pediatr Orthop 18:543-8,1998.
Kumar N, Ramakrishnan V, Johnson GV, Southern S: Endoscopically-assisted excision of scapular osteochondroma. Acta Orthop Scand 70:394-6,1999.

Lachman RS, Cohen A, Hollister D, Rimoin DL: Metachondromatosis. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser 10:171-8,1974.
Lamesch AJ: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the carpal bones. Report of a case and review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg 65A:398-400,1983.
Lang IM, Azouz EM: MRI appearances of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the knee. Skeletal Radiol 26:226-9,1997.
Lange R, Lange TA, Rao BK: Correlative radiographic, scintigraphic and histologic evaluation of exostosis. J Bone Joint Surg 66A:1454-9,1984.
Lee JK, Yao L, Wirth CR: MR imaging of solitary osteochondromas: report of eight cases. AJR 149:557-60,1987.
Legeai-Mallet L, Munnich A, Maroteaux P, Le Merrer M: Incomplete penetrance and expressivity skewing in hereditary multiple exostoses. Clin Genet 52:12-6,1997.
Le Merrer M, Legeai-Mallet L, Jeannin PM, Horsthemke B, Schinzel A, Plauchu H, Toutain A, Achard F, Munnich A, Maroteaux P: A gene for hereditary multiple exostoses maps to chromosome 19p. Hum Mol Genet 3:717-22,1994.
Lamesch AJ: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the carpal bones. J Bone Joint Surg 65A:398-400,1983.
Lamesch AJ, Jacquemart J: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the carpal bones. Report of a case with a long-term follow-up after conservative treatment--review of the literature. Bull Soc Sci Med Grand Duche Luxemb 125:Spec No 84-7,1988.

Le Merrer M, Fressinger P, Maroteaux P: Genochondromatosis. J Med Genet 28:485-9,1991.
Lee KCY, Davies AM, Cassar-Pullicino VN: Imaging the complications of osteochondromas. Clin Radiol 57:18-28,2002.
Leggett DAC, Sinnott SJ, Kienzle HN: Pseudoaneurysm and deep vein thrombosis complicating femoral osteochondroma: multimodality imaging. Australia Radiol 50:258-61,2006.
Levine M, Gurd AR: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica presenting as a progressive, painful flatfoot deformity. Cleve Clin Q 53:351-4,1986.
Libshitz HI, Cohen MA: Radiation-induced osteochondromas. Radiology 142:643-7,1982.
Lichenstein JR: Multiple exostosis. In Bergama D (ed) Birth defects: atlas and compendium. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimor, 1973, p641.
Luisiri A, Silberstein MJ, Sundaram M, Akbamia BA, Graviss ER: Dysplasia epiphysialis hemimelica. Orthopedics 8:1170-5,1985.
Lynch AF, Fogarty EE, Dowling FE, Regan BF: Pseudowinging of the scapula due to osteochondromata. J Pediatr Orthop 5:722-4,1985.

Mainzer F, Minagi H, Steinbach HL: The variale manifestations of multiple enchondromatosis. Radiology 99:377-88,1971.
Malagón V: Development of hip dysplasia in hereditary multiple exostosis. J Pediatr Orthop 21:205-11,2001.
Malghem J, Vande Berg B, Noel H, Maldague B: Benign osteochondromas and exostotic chondrosarcomas: evaluation of cartilage cap thickness by ultrasound. Skeletal Radiol 21:33-7,1992.
Malhotra R, Maheshwari J, Dinda AK: A solitary osteochondroma of the capitate bone. J Hand Surg 17A:1082-3,1992.

Maroteaux P: La metachondromatose. Z Kinderheilkd 109:246-61,1971.
Maroteaux P, Le Merrer M, Bensahel H, Freisinger P: Dominant carpotarsal osteochondromatosis. J Med Genet 30:704-6,1993.
Martens M, Tanghe W, Mulier JC: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Acta Orthop Belg 34:625-44,1968.
Martin MA, Garcia L, Jijazi H, Sanchez MM: Osteochondroma of the peroneal tubercle. A report of two cases. Internat Orthop 19:405-7,1995.
Masada K, Tsuyuguchi Y, Kawai H, Kawabata H, Noguchi K, Ono K: Operations for forearm deformity caused by multiple osteochondromas. J Bone Joint Surg 71B:24-9,1989.
Matsuno T, Ichioka Y, Yagi T, Ishii S: Spindle-cell sarcoma in patients who have osteochondromatosis: a report of two cases. J Bone Joint Surg 70A:137-41,1988.

Mavrogenis AF, Skarpidi E, Papakonstantinou O, Papagelopoulos PJ: Chondrosarcoma in metachondromatosis. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg 92A:1507-13,2010.
Maylack FH, Manske PR, Strecker WB: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica at the metacarpophalangeal joint. J Hand Surg 13A:916-20,1988.
Mehta M, White LM, Knapp T, Kandel RA, Wunder JS, Bell RS: MR imaging of symptomatic osteochondromas with pathological correlation. Skeletal Radiol 27:427-33,1998.
Meissner SA, Vieth V, August C, Winkelmann W: Radiology-pathology conference: osteosarcoma in a cartilaginous exostosis of the femur. Clin Imag 30:206-9,2006.
Mendez AA, Keret D, MacEwen GD: Isolated dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the hip joint. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg 70A:921-5,1988.
Mermer MJ, Gupta MC, Salamon PB, Benson DR: Thoracic vertebral body exostosis as a cause of myelopathy in a patient with hereditary multiple exostoses. J Spinal Disord Tech 15:144-8,2002.
Merzoug V, Wicard P, Dubousset J, Kalifa G: Bilateral dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica: report of two cases. Pediatr Radiol 32:431-4,2002.
Meyerding HW: Exostosis. Radiology 8:282-8,1927.
Mikawa Y, Watanabe R, Nakashima Y, Hayashida T: Cervical spinal cord compression in hereditary multiple exostoses. Report of a case and review of the literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 116:112-5,1997.
Milch RA: Osteochondroma of the astragalus. Am J Surg 87:145-8,1954.
Milgram JW: The origins of osteochondromas. A histopathologic study. Clin Orthop 174:264-84,1983.
Mintzer CM, Klein JD, Kasser JR: Osteochondroma formation after a Salter II fracture. J Orthop Trauma 8:437-9,1994.
Montella BJ, O'Farrell DA, Furr WS, Harrelson JM: Fibular osteochondroma presenting as chronic ankle sprain. Foot Ankle Internat 16:207-9,1995.
Montgomery PQ, Goddard NJ, Kemp HB: Solitary osteochondroma causing sural nerve entrapment neuropathy. J R Soc Med 82:761,1989.
Moore JR, Curtis RM, Wilgis EF: Osteocartilaginous lesions of the digits in children: an experience with 10 cases. J Hand Surg 8A:309-15,1983.
Morikawa M, Numaguchi Y, Soliman JA: Osteochondroma of the cervical spine. MR findings. Clin Imaging 19:275-8,1995.
Moriwaka F, Hozen H, Nakane K, Sasaki H, Tashiro K, Abe H: Myelopathy due to osteochondroma: MR and CT studies. J Comput Assist Tomogr 14:128-30,1990.
Morton KS: On the question of recurrence of osteochondroma. J Bone Joint Surg 46B:723-5,1964.
Moseley JE: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (tarso-epiphyseal aclasis). J Mt Sinai Hosp N Y 24:510-5,1957.
Moser RP, Jr:: Cartilaginous Tumors of the Skeleton. AFIP Atlas of Radiologic-Pathologic Correlations. Fascicle II. Davidson AJ (Ed). Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis, 1990.
Mouchet A, Belot J: La tarsonmegalie. J Radiol Electrol 10:289-93,1926.
Munthe E: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. An unusual case combined with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Rheumatol Scand 13:222-4,1967.
Murase T, Moritomo H, Tada K, Yoshida T: Pseudomallet finger associated with exostosis of the phalanx: a report of 2 cases. J Hand Surg 27A:817-20,2002.
Murphey MD, Choi JJ, Kransdorf MJ, Flemming DJ, Gannon FH: Imaging of osteochonroma: variants and complications with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 20:1407-34,2000.
Murphy FD Jr, Blount WP: Cartilaginous exostoses following irradiation. J Bone Joint Surg 44:662-8,1962.
Murphey MD, Choi JJ, Kransdorf MJ, Flemming DJ, Gannon FH: Imaging of osteochondroma: variants and complications with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 20:1407-34,2000.
Nawata K, Teshima R, Minamizaki T, Yamamoto K: Knee deformities in multiple hereditary exostoses: a longitudinal radiographic study. Clin Orthop 313:194-9,1995.
Nercessian O, Denton JR: Cartilaginous exostosis arising from the ventral surface of the scapula. A case report. Clin Orthop 236:145-7,1988.
Nevelsteen A, Pype P, Broos P, Suy R: Brachial artery rupture due to an exostosis: brief report. J Bone Joint Surg 70B:672,1988.
Nielson OG, Gadegaard L, Fogh A: Osteochondroma of the cervical spine. J Laryngol Otol 100:733-6,1986.
Nishiyama M, Nii E, Akeda K, Uchida A: Limb-lengthening and angular correction for dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. J Orthop Sci 6:358-61,2001.
Noonan KJ, Feinberg JR, Levenda A, Snead J, Wurtz LD: Natural history of multiple hereditary osteochondromatosis of the lower extremity and ankle. J Pediatr Orthop 22:120-4,2002.
Noonan KJ, Levenda A, Snead J, Feinberg JR, Mih A: Evaluation of the forearm in untreated adult subjects with multiple hereditary osteochondromatosis. J Bone Joint Surg 84:397-403,2002.
Noyes FR, Kivi LP: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. A case simulating an intraarticular body. Clin Orthop 86:175-7,1972.
Oates E, Cutler JB, Miyamoto EK, Hirose F, Lachman RS: Case report 305. Skeletal Radiol 13:174-8,1985.
Oestreich AE, Mitchell CS, Akeson JW: Both Trevor and Ollier disease limited to one upper extremity. Skeletal Radiol 31:230-4,2002.
Ogawa K, Yoshido A, Vi M: Symptomatic osteochondroma of the clavicle. A report of two cases. J Bone Joint Surg 81A:404-8,1999.
Okuyama K, Chiba M, Okada K, Sato K, Hoshi N: Huge solitary osteochondroma at T11 level causing myelopathy: case report. Spinal Cord 35:773-776,1997.
Op de Beeck K, Vandenbosch G, Lateur L, Baert AL: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (Trevor's disease). J Belge Radiol 76:386-7,1993.
Ozaki T, Hillman A, Blasius S, Link T, Winkelmann W: Multicentric malignant transformation of multiple exosteoses. Skeletal Radiol 27:233-6,1998.
Ozer K, Peterson S: Phalangeal osteochondroma in a 2-year0old child. Orthopedics 29:943-4,2006.
Parsons TA: The snapping scapula and subscapular exostoses. J Bone Joint Surg 55B:345-9,1973.
Peduto AJ, Frawley KJ, Bellemore MC, Kuo RS, Foster SL, Onikul E: MR imaging of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica: bony and soft-tissue abnormalities. AJR 172:819-23,1999.
Peterson HA: Deformities and problems of the forearm in children with multiple hereditary osteochondromas. J Pediatr Orthop 14:92-100,1994.
Peterson HA: Multiple hereditary osteochondromata. Clin Orthop 239:222-30,1989.
Philippe C, Porter DE, Emerton ME, Wells DE, Simpson AH, Monaco AP: Mutation screening of the EXT1 and EXT2 genes in patients with hereditary multiple exostoses. Am J Hum Genet 61:520-8,1997.
Phillips DR, Iwinski HJ, Bertrand SL: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. J South Orthop Assoc 6:106-9,1997.
Pierz KA, Stieber JR, Kusumi K, Dormans JP: Hereditary multiple exostoses: one center's experience and review of etiology. Clin Orthop 401:49-59,2002.
Poli G, Verni E: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the radius. Chir Organi Mov 80:341-4,1995.
Porter DE, Benson MK, Hosney GA: The hip in hereditary multiple exostoses. J Bone Joint Surg 83B:988-95,2001.
Porter DE, Emerton ME, Villaneuva-Lopez F, Simpson AHRW: Clinical and radiographic analysis of osteochondromas and growth disturbance in hereditary multiple exostoses. J Pediatr Orthop 20:246-50,2000.
Porter DE, Simpson AHRW: The neoplastic parthogensis of soitary and multiple osteochondromas. J Pathol 188:119-25,1999.
Porter G, Allard J: Wavy pelvis sign in CT of multiple hereditary osteochondromatosis: JCAT 16:126-8,1992.
Porter DE, Emerton ME, Villanueva-Lopez F, Simpson AH: Clinical and radiographic analysis of osteochondromaas and growth disturbance in hereditary multiple exostoses. J Pediatr Orthop 20:246-50,2000.
Poustchi-Amin M, Leonidas JC, Elkowitz SS: Simultaneous occurrence of osteosarcoma and osteochondroma with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and bone marrow transplantation. Pediatr Radiol 26:155-7,1996.
Prasad A, Renjen PN, Prassad ML, Bhatty GB, Madan VS, Buxi TB, Agarwal SP: Solitary spinal osteochondroma causing neural syndromes. Paraplegia 30:678-80,1992.
Pritchett JW: Lengthening the ulna in patients with hereditary multiple exostosis. JBone Joint Surg 68B:561-5,1986.
Prosser AJ, Brenkel IJ, Pearse M, Gregg PJ: Unusual causes of calf swelling--3. Popliteal vein obstruction by an osteochondroma of the proximal tibia. Postgrad Med J 63:657-9,1987.
Quirini GE, Meyer JR, Herman M, Russell EJ: Osteochondroma of the thoracic spine: an unusual cause of spinal cord compression. Am J Neuroradiol 17:961-4,1996.
Rao SB, Roy DR: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Upper limb involvement with associated osteochondroma. Clin Orthop 307:103-9,1994.
Raskind WH, Conrad EU, Chaansky H, Matsushita M: Loss of heterozygosity in chondrosarcomas for markers limited to hereditary multiple exostoses loci on chromosomes 8 and 11. Am J Hum Genet 56:1132-9,1995.
Rice J, Stephens M, Colville J: Scaphoid osteochondroma mimicking carpal coalition. J Hand Surg 21B:779-80,1996.
Robinson D, Hasharoni A, Oganesian A, Sandell LJ, Yayon A, Nevo Z: Role of FGF9 and FGF receptor 3 in osteochondroma formation. Orthopedics 24:783-7,2001.
Roblot P, Alcalay M, Cazenare-Roblot F, Levy P, Bontoux D: Osteochondroma of the thoracic spine: report of a case and review of the literature. Spine 15:240-3,1990.
Rook FR: Intra-articular osteochondroma of the astragalus. Am J Surg 85:807-10,1953.
Sartoris DJ: Podiatric imaging quiz. Dysplasi epiphysealis hemimelica or Trevor's disease. J Foot Surg 31:407-13,1992.
Saxton HM, Wilkinson JA: Hemimelica skeletal dysplasia. J Bone Joint Surg 46B:608-13,1964.
Scarborough MT, Moreau G: Benign cartilage tumors. Orthop Clin North Am 27:583-9,1996.
Schmale GA, Conrad EU, Raskind WH: The natural history of hereditary multiple exostoses. J Bone Joint Surg 76A:986-92,1994.
Schmidt MB, Lomasney LM: Trevor disease: dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Orthopedics 17:645,649-53,1994.
Schonbrun J, Haber JA: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. J Foot Surg 22:153-4,1983.
Schweitzer G, Pirie D: Osteosarcoma arising in a solitary osteochondroma. S Afr Med J 45:810-1,1971.
Scoggin JF III, Jacques KM: Post-traumatic osteochondroma formation following intramedullary fracture fixation. Orthopedics 24:991-2,2001.
Segal LS, Vrahas MS, Schwentker EP: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the sacroiliac joint: a case report. Clin Orthop 333:202-7,1996.
Shapiro F, Simon S, Glimcher MJ: Hereditary multiple exostoses: anthropometric, roentgenographic and clinical aspects. J Bone Joint Surg 61A:815-24,1979.
Sherlock DA, D'Arcy Benson MK: Eysplasia epiphysialis hemimelica of the hip. A case report. Acta Orthop Scand 57:173-5,1986.
Shinozaki T, Ohfuchi T, Watanabe H, Aoki J, Fukuda T, Takagishi K: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the proximal tibia showing epiphyseal osteochondroma in an adult. Clin Imaging 23:168-71,1999.
Sibler JS, Mathur S, Ecker M: A solitary osteochondroma of the pediatric thoracic spine: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Orthop 29:711-4,2000.
Siffert RS, Levy RN: Correction of wrist deformity in diaphyseal aclasis by stapling: report of a case. J Bone Joint Surg 47A:1378-80,1965.
Silverman F: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Semin Roentgenol 24:246-8,1989.
Skaggs DL, Moon CN, Kay RM, Peterson HA: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the acetabulum. A report of two cases. J Bone Joint Surg 82A:409-14,2000.
Skripitz R, Lussenhop S, Meiss AL: Wedge excision chondroplasty of the knee in dysplasi epiphysealis hemimelica--report of 2 cases. Acta Orthop Scand 74:225-9,2003.
Snearly WN, Peterson HA: Management of ankle deformities in multiple hereditary osteochondromata. J Pediatr Orthopo 9:427-32,1989.
Solomon L: Bone grwoth in diaphysial aclasis. J Bone Joint Surg 43B:700-16,1961.
Solomon L: Chondrosaracoma in hereditary multiple exostosis. S Afr Med J 48:671-6,1974.
Solomon L: Hereditary multiple exostosis. J Bone Joint Surg 45B:292-304,1963.
Spallone A, di Lorenzo N, Nardi P, Noletti A: Spinal osteochondroma diagnosed by computed tomography. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Acta Neurochir 58:105-14,1981.
Spiess H, Mays CM: Exostoses induced by 224Ra(ThX) in children. Eur J Pediatr 132:271-6,1988.

Spranger J, Kemperdieck H, Bakowski H, Opitz JM: Two peculiar types of enchondromatosis. Pediatr Radiol 7:215-9,1978.
Stanton RP, Hansen MO: Function of the upper extremities in hereditary multiple exostoses. J Bone Joint Surg 78:568-73,1996.
Stern PJ, Philips D: Phalangeal osteochondroma: an unusual cause of swan-neck deformity. J Hand Surg 11A:70-3,1986.
Stieber JR, Dormans JP: Manifestations of hereditary multiple exostoses. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 13:110-20,2005.
Stickens D, Clines G, Burbee D, Ramos P, Thomas S, Hogue D, Hecht JT, Lovett M, Evans GA: The ext2 multiple exostoses gene defines a family of putative tumour suppressor genes. Nat Genet 14:25-32,1996.
Stickens D, Evans GA. A sugar fix for bone tumors? Nat Genet 19:110-1,1998.
Sty JR, Babbitt DP, Boedecker RA: Bone scintigraphy: radiation-induced cartilaginous exostosis. J Nucl Med 20:580-1,1979.
Tajima K, Nishida MD, Yamozaki K, Shimamura T, Abe ML: Case report 545. Skeletal Radiol 18:306-9,1989.
Takagi M, Kiyoshige Y, Ishikawa A, Ogino T: Multiple occurrence of osteochondromas in dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 120:358-60,2000.
Takegami Y, Nogami H: A case of bilateral dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica associated with polydactyly and syndactyly. Clin Orthop 296:307-9,1993.
Takeuchi H, Ito K, Ogino T, Hasegawa T, Kitamura M, Ishii S: A case of osteocartilaginous mass involving the coronoid process of the ulna: solitary osteochondroma or dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica? J Shoulder Elbow Surg 12:510-3,2003.
Tang WM, Kuk KDK, Leong JCY: Costal osteochondroma: a rare cuse of spinal cord compression. Spine 23:1900-3,1998.
Taniguchi K: A practical classification system for multiple cartilaginous exstosis in children. J Pediatr Orthop 15:585-91,1995.
Taniguchi Y, Tamaki T: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica with carpal instability. J Hand Surg 23B:425-7,1998.
Teixeira AB, Sa de Camargo Etchebehere EC, Santos AO, Lima MC, Ramos CD, Camargo EE: Scintigraphic findings of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica: a case report. Clin Nucl Med 26:162,2001.
Theodorou S, Lanitis G: Dysplasia epiphysialis hemimelica (epiphyseal osteochondromata). Report of two cases and review of the literature. Helv Paediat Acta 23:195-204,1968.
Thomas ML, Andress MR: Osteochondroma of the cervical spine causing cord compression. Br J Radiol 44:549-51,1971.
Trevor D: Tarso-epiphyseal aclasis: congenital error in epiphyseal development. J Bone Joint Surg 32B:204-13,1950.
Trotter D, Zindrick M, Ibrahim K: An unusual presentation of an osteochondroma. Report of a case. J Bone Joint Surg 66A:299-301,1984.
Unger EC, Gilula LA, Kyriakos M: Case report 430: ischemic necrosis of osteochondroma of tibia. Skeletal Radiol 16:416-21,1987.
Uchida K, Kurihara Y, Sekiguchi S, : Spontaneous hemothorax caused by costal exostosis. Eur Respir J 10:735-6,1997.
Vallance R, Hamblen DL, Kelly IG: Vascular complications of osteochondroma. Clin Radiol 36:639-42,1985.
van Alphen JC, te Slaa RL, Eulderink F, Obermann WR: Solitary osteochondroma of the scaphoid: a case report. J Hand Surg 21A:423-5,1996.

Van Hul W, Wuyts W, Hendricks J, Speleman F, Wauters J, De Boulie K, Van Roy N, Bossuyt P, Willems PJ: Identification of a third EXT-like gene (EXTL3) belonging to the EXT gene family. Genomics 47:230-7,1998.
Vanhoenacker F, Morlion J, De Schepper AM, Callewaert E: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the scaphoid bone. Eur Radiol 9:915-7,1999.
Vanhoemacker FM, Van Hul W, Wuyts W, Willems PJ, De Schepper AM: Hereditary multiple exostoses: from genetics to clinical syndrome and complications. Eur J Radiol 40:208-17,2001.
Vasseur MA, Fabre O: Vascular complications of osteochondromas. J Vasc Surg 31:532-8,2000.
Voutsinas S, Wynne-Davies R: The infrequency of malignant disease in diaphyseal aclasis and neurofibromatosis. J Med Genet 20:345-9,1983.
Vujic M, Bergman A, Romanus B, Wahlstrom J, Martinsson T: Hereditary multiple and isolated sporadic exostoses in the same kindred: identification of the causative gene (EXT2) and detection of a new mutation, nt112delAT, that distinguishes the two phenotypes. Int J Mol Med 13:47-52,2004.
Waters PM, Van Hesst AE, Emans J: Acute forearm lengthenings. J Pediatr Orthop 17:444-9,1997.
Watson LW, Torch MA: Peroneal nerve palsy secondary to compression from an osteochondroma. Orthopedics 16:706-10,1993.
Weltevrede HJ, Jansen BR: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica--three different types in the ankle joint. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 107:89-91,1988.

Wenger DR, Birch J, Rathjen K, Tobin R, Billman G: Metachondromatosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral head: a radiographic and histologic correlation. J Pediatr Orthop 11:294-300,1991.
Wicklund CL, Pauli D, Johnston P, Hecht J: Natural history study of hereditay multiple exostoses. Am J Med Gen 55:43-6,1995.
Wiedemann HR, Mann M, v. Kreudenstein PS: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica-Trevor disease. Severe manifestations in a child. Eur J Pediatr 136:311-6,1981.
Wirganowicz PZ, Watts HG: Surgical risk for elective excision of benign exostoses. J Pediatr Orthop 17:455-9,1997.
Witthaut J, Steffens KJ, Koob E: Intermittent axillary nerve palsy caused by a humeral exostosis. J Hand Surg 19B:422-3,1994.

Wise CA, Clines GA, Massa H, Trask BJ, Lovett M: Identification and localization of the gene for EXTL, a third member of the multiple exostoses gene family. Genome Res 7:10-6,1997.
Wolfgang GL, Heath RD: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica: a case report. Clin Orthop 116:32-4,1976.
Wood VE, Sauer D, Mudge D: The treatment of hereditary multiple exostosis of the upper extremity. J Hand Surg 10A:505-13,1985.
Woodward MN, Daly KE, Dodds RDA, Fixsen JA: Subluxation of the hip joint in multiple hereditary osteochondromatosis: report of two cases. J Pediat Orthop 19:119-21,1999.
Wright JM, Matayoshi E, Goldstein AP: Bursal osteochondromatosis overlying an osteochondroma of a rib. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg 79A:1085-8, 1997.
Wu YO, Heutink P, deVries BB, : Assignment of a second locus for multiple exotoses to the pericentromeric of chromosome 11. Human Mol Genet 3:167-71,1994.
Wuyts W, Ramlakhan S, Van Hul W, . Refinement of the multiple exostoses locus (EXT2) to a 3-cM interval on chromosome 11. Am J Hum Genet 57:382-7,1995.

Wuyts W, Van Hul W: Molecular basis of multiple exostoses: mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes. Hum Mutat 15:220-7,2000.

Wuyts W, Van Hul W, Hendricks J, Speleman F, Wauters J, De Boulie K, Van Roy N, Van Agtmael T, Bossuyt P, Williams PJ: Identification and characterization of a novel member of the EXT gene family, EXTL2. Eur J Hum Genet 5:382-9,1997.
Yukawa Y, Kato F, Sugiura H: Case report. Solitary osteochondroma of the lower cervical spine. Orthopedics 24:292-3,2001.
Yamamura S, Sato K, Sugiura H, Iwata H: Inflammatory reaction in chondroblastoma. Skeletal Radiol 25:371-6,1996.
Zak BM, Crawford BE, Esko JD: Hereditary multiple exostoses and heparan sulfate polymerization. Biochem Biophys Acta 1573:346-55,2002.


Download: PDF | EPUB

Famous Quote
"Character is simply long habit continued." Plutarch
Related Content

Resources for Osteochondroma and related topics on OrthopaedicsOne.