Biologically derived (sex-based) and behaviorally influenced (gender-based) disparities exist in knee osteoarthritis and treatment with TKA.


We sought to highlight sex- and gender-based differences with respect to knee osteoarthritis and its treatment. Our purposes were to (1) define where we are now, (2) outline where we need to go, and (3) generate solutions to how we can get there.

Where are we now?

A growing body of evidence shows sex- and gender-based disparities contribute to differences in the incidence, treatment, and outcomes of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Moreover, the influence of unconscious provider bias in disparities in care is becoming recognized.

Where do we need to go?

Sex- and gender-based differences need to be identified and translated into clinical practice to effect patient-centered sex- and gender-based medicine. Equitable and evidence-based care must be provided.

How do we get there?

Research must continue to focus on sex-based differences in cartilage degeneration and gender-related factors influencing the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Development of evidence-based guidelines for optimal timing of TKA would assist patients and clinicians with surgical decision-making. Training of healthcare providers to mitigate again unconscious basis is essential. Care must be patient-focused, with patients empowered to be full partners with providers in healthcare outcomes.

Full-text article