TypeI: Pauwels’ angle less than 30 degrees

Type II: Pauwels’ angle between 30 and 70 degrees

Type III: Pauwels’ angle more than 70 degrees


Pauwels observed that the obliquity of the fracture line with the horizontal plane significantly affected the prognosis of the fracture. The angle formed by extending the fracture line upwards to meet an imaginary horizontal line drawn through the transtubercular (iliac crest) plane on AP film is described as “Pauwels’ angle.” The higher the value of this angle, the greater is the instability of the fracture.



Provide the citation for the landmark article and recent review articles describing the classification