Bioengineering integrates physical, chemical, and mathematical sciences with engineering principles for the study of biology, medicine, dentistry, behavior, or health. It advances fundamental concepts, translates knowledge from molecular to organ system levels of understanding, and designs and fabricates innovative biologics, biomaterials, processes, medical and dental implants, devices, and bioinformatics for health promotion, disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and therapeutics to improve the health of all people. The National Institutes of Health in recent years has made numerous decisions to coordinate bioengineering activities across the various institutes and centers comprising the National Institutes of Health to increase efforts to support research and research training in bioengineering. This paper will focus on innovations from 1995 to the present that have catalyzed increased activities and opportunities in bioengineering across the National Institutes of Health and will highlight current activities related to tissue engineering at the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.

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