Type I: Fracture line extends upwards and outwards from the lesser trochanter (stable). Type I fractures can be further subdivided as:

  • Type Ia: Undisplaced two-fragment fracture
  • Type Ib: Displaced two-fragment fracture
  • Type Ic: Three-fragment fracture without posterolateral support, owing to displacement of greater trochanter fragment
  • Type Id: Three-fragment fracture without medial support, owing to displaced lesser trochanter or femoral arch fragment
  • Type Ie: Four-fragment fracture without postero-lateral and medial support (combination of Type III and Type IV)

Type II: Fracture line extends downwards and outwards from the lesser trochanter (reversed obliquity/unstable). These fractures are unstable and have a tendency to drift medially.


Provide an explanation for key principles and pertinent aspects of the classification



Provide the citation for the landmark article and recent review articles describing the classification