Classification

Type I: Undisplaced fracture with minimal comminution

Type II: “Die punch” fracture with moderate to severe displacement

  • Type IIa: Reducible (closed)
  • Type IIb: Irreducible (requires open reduction)

Type III: A spike fragment is present; requires closed or limited open reduction; associated nerve or tendon injury common

Type IV: Wide separation of the intra-articular fragments; open reduction always necessary

Type V: Explosion fracture with severe comminution, transverse split, and rotational displacement

Explanation

Provide an explanation for key principles and pertinent aspects of the classification

Figures

Reference(s)

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