This paper describes the use of localized transient gene therapy for the augmentation of fracture healing. It introduces a method involving the delivery of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid via a three dimensional matrix into a wound, with in vivo transfection of wound repair cells resulting, their subsequent expression of factors that condition the wound site and the promotion of healing. Based on experience with critical and noncritical defect models in small and large animals, the potential advantages of this approach are discussed and experimental evidence of promoting bone formation is provided. The studies show the potential of this technology not only to promote bone healing but also to repair or to regenerate other connective tissues.

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