Grade I: Simple dislocation without fracture or with a chip from the acetabulum so small as to be of no consequence

Grade II: Dislocation with one or more large rim fragment, but with sufficient socket remaining to ensure stability after reduction

Grade III: Explosive or blast fracture with disintegration of the rim of the acetabulum, which produces gross instability

Grade IV: Dislocation with a fracture of the head or neck of the femur

Central Dislocations

Grade I: Linear or stellate fracture through the floor of the acetabulum but without appreciate dislocation

Grade II: Comminuted fracture with a mild to moderate central displacement of the femoral head and of the acetabular fragment

Grade III: Marked displacement of the fragments and protrusion of the head of the femur into the pelvis, with or without comminution of the superior portion of the acetabulum

Grade IV: Dislocation with an associated fracture of the head or neck of the femur


Provide an explanation for key principles and pertinent aspects of the classification


Insert figures illustrating the classification


Provide the citation for the landmark article and recent review articles describing the classification