Minimally invasive hip surgery has stimulated a new process in hip arthroplasty. There is consensus among surgeons about the benefits of anesthesia, pain management, and rapid recovery protocols. The benefits of the surgical technique for small incision surgery remain controversial. Some patients influence this controversy because they prefer minimally invasive hip surgery: they associate less body violation and better cosmesis with smaller incisions. Small incision surgery is associated with a learning curve and requires specialized instruments for favorable outcomes. Despite being a more difficult operation to perform, in skilled hands it is a safe procedure that does not increase complication rates as shown by recent prospective, randomized studies. Correct component positioning has been achieved consistently with these procedures and short-term results of small incision surgery are the same as with long incisions. New anesthesia and pain management techniques have led to remarkable early functional results, making same-day surgery possible. With improved instrumentation such as computer navigation, minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty will become more prevalent.

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