Origin

Arises, down the midline, from the external occipital protuberance, the nuchal ligament, the medial part of the superior nuchal line, and the spinous processes of the vertebrae C7-T12

Insertion

At the shoulders, into the lateral third of the clavicle, the acromion process, and into the spine of the scapula

Action(s)

Rotation, retraction, elevation, and depression of scapula

Nerve Supply

Major nerve supply is the cranial nerve XI. Cervical nerves C3 and C4 receive information about pain in this muscle

Arterial Supply

Transverse cervical artery

Physical Exam

Enter physical examination maneuvers for muscle

Clinical Importance

Enter clinical importance of muscle

Disease States

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Discussion

Variations:

The attachments to the dorsal vertebrae are often reduced and the lower ones are often wanting; the occipital attachment is often wanting; separation between cervical and inferior (lower) portions is frequent.

Extensive deficiencies and complete absence occur.

The clavicular insertion of this muscle varies in extent; it sometimes reaches as far as the middle of the clavicle, and occasionally may blend with the posterior edge of the Sternocleidomastoideus, or overlap it.

Fascial plane:

There is an investing deep fascia that encircles the neck, deep to the superficial fascia. This deep fascia contains the trapezius of both sides, as well as the sternocleidomastoid of both sides. All four muscles are supplied by the accessory nerve. The superficial and deep epimysia of the trapezius muscles are continuous with this investing fascia.

Exercise:

The upper portion of the trapezius can be developed by elevating the shoulders. Common exercises for this movement are shoulder shrugs and upright rows. Middle fibers are developed by pulling shoulder blades together. Best exercises for this movement are rowing exercises and deadlifts. The lower part can be developed by drawing the shoulder blades downward while keeping the arms almost straight and stiff. This can be done in a pull-down station for example.

A person can feel the muscles of the superior trapezius become active by holding a weight in front of them in one hand, and with the other, touching the area between the shoulder and the neck. It is common for non-experienced gym users to focus mostly to the upper portion of the muscle, and thus forgetting the important middle part and creating muscle imbalances, which can heavily affect posture and compromise shoulder health.

Barbell Shrug

Hold a barbell with both hands in front of you with your hands a little wider than shoulder width apart. Keep your feet at shoulder width. Stand straight up with the bar hanging at arms length. Droop shoulders down as much as possible to start. Raise your shoulders up as far as you can go. All movements should act directly against the force of gravity and therefore any semicircular motion of the shoulders (a common error which can lead to injury) is wasted effort since there is no resistance in the horizontal movement. Can also be done with dumbbells.

Barbell Shrug behind the Back

Hold a barbell behind your back with your palms facing backwards. "Shrug" your shoulders upward as high as you can and squeeze it for a second. Then lower the bar all the way down as far as you can. To get the barbell into position, you can rest it on a power rack or bench and then pick it up from there. You can also do these with dumbbells.

Cable Shrugs

Grasp cable bar that is attached to the low pulley with a shoulder width or slightly wider overhand grip. Stand close to pulley. Elevate shoulders as high as possible. Lower and repeat.

Machine Shoulder Shrug

This is a great way to work your traps and avoid having to hold dumbbells or barbells, which can be hard on your arms or wrists. Position yourself on the calf machine so that the shoulder pads are above your shoulders. Put your hands on your hips. Raise your shoulders up towards your ears and hold it for a full second. Slowly return to the starting position and repeat. You can change your shoulder position (bending over a little) to hit the traps from different angles.

Dumbbell Incline Shoulder Raise

Preparation:

Sit down on an incline bench with the dumbbells resting on your lower thigh. Kick the weights to your shoulders and lean back. Position the dumbbells above your shoulders with your elbows extended.

Execution

Raise your shoulders toward the dumbbells as high as possible. Lower shoulders to bench and repeat.

Dumbbell Shrug

Stand straight up with your feet at shoulder width. Hold two dumbbells with your arms hanging at your sides. Droop shoulders down as far as possible. Raise shoulders up as far as you can go. Then slowly return to the starting position. Rotating the shoulders should be avoided as it lowers efficiency and causes unnecessary strain upon the rotator cuff which can lead to injury.

Low Pulley Row To Neck

This is like a seated row but you use a rope handle and pull to your neck. Sit at a seated row station and grab the ends of the rope using a palms down grip. Sit with your knees slightly bent and your back straight. Your back should be almost completely vertical… do not lean back! Keeping your back in the same vertical position, pull the rope back and up to neck height. Your elbows should be out, away from your sides. Return slowly to the starting position. This targeted muscles are Biceps, Middle Back, Shoulders.

Smith Machine Shrug

Stand grasping Smith bar with shoulder width or slightly wider overhand grip. Disengage bar from the rack. Elevate shoulders as high as possible. Lower and repeat.

Smith Machine Upright Row

Same as the Upright Barbell Row but with a Smith Machine. The targeted muscles are Traps, Biceps, Shoulders.

Hang Clean

These are executed just like the Power Clean except that you start from a hanging position and you do not catch it at the top. The targeted muscles Traps, Worked: Biceps, Lower Back, Forearms, Hamstrings, Calves, Abdominals, Shoulders.

Standing Dumbbell Upright Row

Hold dumbbells, hanging, against your upper thighs. Keep dumbbells about 10 inches apart, thumbs facing in. Pull dumbbells straight up until nearly even with your chin. Keep your elbows up and out! Keep weights close to your body and slowly return to the starting position. Can also be done with a cable or barbell. The targeted muscles are Traps, Biceps, Shoulders, and surrounding muscles.

Upright Barbell Row

Standing upright, grasp a barbell with your hands about shoulder width apart. Let the bar hang straight down in front of you. Keep your body and wrists straight. Pull the bar straight up towards your chin, keeping it close to your body. Concentrate on either pulling with your traps or the front of your shoulders, depending on what you want to work most. Lower slowly to the starting position. Do not cheat by leaning forward or backward. Do not swing! The targeted muscles are Traps, Biceps, and Shoulders.

Upright Cable Row

Standing upright, grasp a straight bar connected to a cable machine with your hands about shoulder width apart. Let the bar hang straight down in front of you. Keep your body and wrists straight. Pull the bar straight up towards your chin, keeping it close to your body. Concentrate on either pulling with your traps or the front of your shoulders, depending on what you want to work most. Lower slowly to the starting position. Do not cheat by leaning forward or backward. Do not swing! The targeted muscles are Traps, and Shoulders!

Figures

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Credits:





From Wikipedia:
Trapezius

Attachments:


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