DEFINITION AND PATHOGENESIS
- A benign, rarely symptomatic lesion, usually very small, of unknown etiology
- Commonly found incidentally, and can be mistaken for lesions which require bx
- Usually asymptomatic
- Symptomatic lesions may become asymptomatic
- Most common in pelvis, ribs, proximal femur
- M = F
- Has been reported in Bannayan-Riley Ruvalcaba syndrome
- A higher incidence of bone islands has been reported in the hands and feet of pts with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types of leprosy but not in tuberculoid leprosy
- 2mm-2cm sized round to oval blastic lesion blends with the cancellous bone in a "brush-like" manner
- Bone scan is cold or only warm (33% >15mm reported active on bone scan)
- CT scan will show the blastic nature of the lesion, accurately give dimensions, and demonstrate lack of periosteal reaction
- No surrounding bony destruction/cortical disruption, IM extension, or soft tissue mass associated with the lesion is best demonstrated with MRI (hypointense on T1 and T2)
- Sharply defined hard lesion within the IM canal
- Appearance of misplaced cortical bone within the IM canal: thick lamellar bone with Haversian systems
- No host bone lamellar bone trapping (seen in callus and osteosarcoma)
- No atypical nuclei or mitoses
DIFFERENTIAL CLINICOPATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS
- Metastatic bone disease (esp. with multiple lesions, eg, blastic breast mets or prostate CA)
- Osteoid osteoma
- Bone infarct
- Fibrous dysplasia
DISEASE COURSE AND TREATMENT
- Usually require no tx
- FU x-ray in one month and every 3 months (X4) in questionable lesions
- Biopsy in larger lesions to R/O osteosarcoma or in lesions that have size ? > 25% within 6mos, or >50% at 1yr
- (Multiple Enostosis, Osteopathia Condensans Disseminata)
- Hereditary: AD
- Multiple lesions, referred to as "spotted bone disease"
- May be associated with multiple osteochondromatosis and keloid formation tendency
- Cutaneous lesions in 25% (white, closely situated fibrocollagenous infiltrations
- (Dermatofibrosis Lenticularis Disseminata, "Buschke'Ollendorff Syndrome")
- May be associated with dwarfism, dystocia, spinal stenosis, joint pain ± effusion
GIANT BONE ISLAND
- Bone island of >2cm in size (4cm reported)
- "Cumulus cloud" appearance
- Bx indicated to R/O stage IIA osteosarcoma
Figure 1. Osteopoikilosis discovered incidentally on a KUB. Note the numerous bone islands in the periacetabular regions and sacral alae. "Spotted bone disease" is AD so family members will often have similar radiographic findings.
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