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©: copyright (this syllabus has one)
?: greater or equal to
>: greater than
?: less than or equal to
<: less than
?: nearly equal to
=: equal to, same incidence as
±: plus or minus
+: positive
-: negative
?: approximately, about
?: leads to
?: increase(d)
??: markedly increase(d)
?: decrease(d)
??: markedly decrease(d)
@: at
X: times
[ ]: concentration
?: 'check it'
?: therefore
?: change
°: degrees
1,25-OHD3: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitrial)
AAOS: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
ABC: aneurysmal bone cyst
ABx(s): antibiotic(s)
AC: acromioclavicular
acid?: acid phosphatase
ACL: anterior cruciate ligament
AD: autosomal dominant
ADA: American Dental Association
ADL: activities of daily living
AFIP: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Alk?: alkaline phosphatase
ALL: acute lymphoblastic leukemia
APC (gene): adenomatous polyposic coli
AR: autosomal recessive
ASIS: anterior superior iliac spine
BID: twice a day
BFH: benign fibrous histiocytoma
BGP: bone Gla protein
BMD: bone mineral density
BMP: bone morphogenetic protein
BS: bone scan
BUN: blood urea nitrogen
bx: biopsy
Ca++: Calcium
CAMP: cyclic adenosine monophosphate
CBC: complete blood count
CEA: carcinogenic embryonic antigen
cGy: centigray
chemotx: chemotherapy
cm: centimeter
CMF: chondromyxoid fibroma
CNS: central nervous system
Co-Cr: cobalt-chrome
COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COX(-1)(-2): cyclooxygenase (-1)(-2)
CPPD: callcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)
Cr: creatinine
C/S: culture and sensitivity
CT: computed tomography
CTS: carpal tunnel syndrome
CVP: central venous pressure
CxR: chest radiograph
d: day
DCP(s): dynamic compression plate(s)
DDx: differential diagnoses
DEXA: dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
DFS: disease free survival
DIC: disseminated intravascular coagulation
DISH: diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis
DJD: degenerative joint disease
DM: diabetes mellitus
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
DRUJ: distal radial-ulnar joint
DVT: deep venous thrombosis
Dx: diagnosis
EBL: estimated blood loss
ECHO: echocardiogram
EF: external fixation
EFS: event free survival
eg: for example
EG: eosinophilic granuloma
EGF(R):epidermal growth factor (receptor)
EHL: extensor hallucis longus
ELISA: enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay
EM: electron microscopy
ER: external rotation
ES: extraskeletal
esp: especially
ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate
etc: and so on
F: Farenheit or Female
FCD: fibrous cortical defect
FDA: Food and Drug Administration
FGF2(R): fibroblast growth factor type 2 (receptor)
FS: fat suppression
fx(s): fracture(s)
g: gram
GAG(s): glycosaminoglycan(s)
GAP: guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein
GC: gonococcal
GCSF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
GH: glenohumeral
GI: gastrointestinal
GM-CSF: granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor
G-to-T: guanine-to-thymine
Gy: Gray
HA: hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2)
HAs: headaches
H/H: hemoglobin/hematocrit
HIV: human immunodeficiency virus
H2O: water
HO: hetertopic ossification
hpf: high power field
hr(s): hour(s)
hx: history
IA: intra-arterial
IBW: ideal body weight
I&D: incision and drainage
IF: internal fixation
Ig: immunoglobulin
IL-1, -6, -11: interleukin-1, -6, -11
IM: intramedullary, intramuscular
IR: internal rotation
IT: intertrochanteric
IV: intravenous
l: liter
L: left
lb: pound
LBP: low back pain
LDH: lactate dehydrogenase
LDL: low-density lipoprotein
LE(s): lower extremity(ies)
LFC: lateral femoral condyle
LLD: leg length discrepancy
LOH: loss of heterozygosity
LR: local recurrence
LN(s): lymph node(s)
LSMFT: liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor
M: male
MC(s): metacarpal(s)
M-CSF: macrophage colony stimulating factor
MDM-2: murine double minus-2 protein
MDR-1 (gene): multidrug resistance
MF: middle finger
MFC: medial femoral condyle
MFH: malignant fibrous histiocytoma
mg: milligram
MHE: multiple hereditary exostoses
MI: myocardial infarction
mm: millimeter
MMP(s): matrix metalloproteinase(s)
MPNST: malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor
MO: myositis ossification
mos: month(s)
MRI: magnetic resonance imaging
mRNA: messenger ribonucleic acid
MT(s): metatarsal(s)
MTX: methotrexate
NCNC: normocytic normochromic
NED: no evidence of disease
NF-1: neurofibromatosis type 1
nl: normal
NIDDM: non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
nm: nanometer
NOF: non-ossifying fibroma
NSAID(s): non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug(s)
NV: neurovascular
N/V: nausea/vomiting
O2: oxygen
OA: osteoarticular, osteoarthritis
OCD: osteochondritis dissecans
OCE: osteochondroma; osteochondral exostosis(es)
OI: osteogenesis imperfecta
ORIF: open reduction internal fixation
PA/LAT: posterior-anterior/lateral
PAS: periodic acid Schiff
PCL: posterior cruciate ligament
PCN: penicillin
PCR: polymerase chain reaction
PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor
PIN: posterior interosseous nerve
PMMA: polymethylmethacrylate
PMN(s): polymorphonuclearcyte(s)
PNET: primitive neuroectodermal tumor
PNST: peripheral nerve sheath tumor
PO: by mouth (per os)
postop: post-operative
PO4=: phosphate
PR: rectal (per rectum)
preop: pre-operative
PSA: prostrate specific antigen
PSIS: posterior superior iliac spine
PT: physical therapy
PTH: parathyroid hormone
pt(s): patient(s)
PVD: peripheral vascular disease
PVNS: pigmented villonodular synovitis
Q: every
QD: every day
R: right
RA: rheumatoid arthritis
RB: retinoblastoma
re: regarding
RER: rough endoplasmic reticulum
RF: rheumatoid factor
RNA: ribonucleic acid
R/O: rule out
ROM: range of motion
RS: rectal suppository
Rx: medication
SC: sternoclavicular
SCFE: slipped capital femoral epiphysis
SD(s): standard deviation(s)
SER: smooth endoplasmic reticulum
SI: sacroiliac; si: signal intensity
SLAC: scapholunate advanced collapse
SLE: systemic lupus erythematosis
SPEP: serum protein electrophoresis
SSCP: single-strand conformational polymorphism
SSEP: somatosensory-evoked potential
STIR: short tau inversion recovery
sx(s): symptom(s)
T: temperature
TB: tuberculosis, tuberculous
TCN: tetracycline
TCP: tricalcium phosphate
TEA: total elbow arthroplasty
TFCC: triangular fibrocartilage complex
TGF-?, -?: transtorming growth factor-?, -?
THA: total hip arthroplasty
THR: total hip revision
Ti: titanium
TID: three times a day
TIMP(s): tissue inhibitors of matalloproteinases
TKA: total knee arthroplasty
TKR: total knee revision
TNF-?: tumor necrosis factor-?
TSA: total shoulder arthroplasty
T1(or 2)WI: T1 (or 2) weighted images
tx(d): treatment, therapy (treated)
UA: urinalysis
UPEP: urine protein electrophoresis
US: ultrasound/ultrasonography
USA: United States
UTI urinary tract infection
UV: ultraviolet
VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor
VMO: vastus medialis obliquus
vs: versus
WHO: World Health Organization
wt: weight
XR: sex-linked recessive
x-ray: radiograph(s)
XRT: radiation therapy
yr(s): year(s)
YS: year survival (eg, 5YS)