Grade 0: Complete flail shoulder

Grade 1 (poor): Abduction equal to 45°, with no active external rotation

Grade 2 (fair): Abduction of less than 90°, with no external rotation

Grade 3 (satisfactory): Abduction equal to 90°, with weak external rotation

Grade 4 (good): Abduction of less than 120°, with incomplete external rotation

Grade 5 (excellent): Abduction of greater than 120°, with active external rotation


Provide an explanation for key principles and pertinent aspects of the classification


Insert figures illustrating the classification


Provide the citation for the landmark article and recent review articles describing the classification