Classification

Type A

  • Below level of the ankle joint
  • Tibiofibular syndesmosis intact
  • Deltoid ligament intact
  • Medial malleolus often fractured
  • Usually stable, although occasionally requires open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF)

Type B

  • At the level of the ankle joint, extending superiorly and laterally up the fibula
  • Tibiofibular syndesmosis intact or only partially torn, but no widening of the distal tibiofibular articulation
  • Medial malleolus may be fractured or deltoid ligament may be torn
  • Variable stability

Type C

  • Above the level of the ankle joint
  • Tibiofibular syndesmosis disrupted with widening of the distal tibiofibular articulation
  • Medial malleolus fracture or deltoid ligament injury present
  • Unstable; requires ORIF

Explanation

Provide an explanation for key principles and pertinent aspects of the classification

Figures

Reference(s)

Provide the citation for the landmark article and recent review articles describing the classification

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