The evaluation of medical students consists, in part, of a transparent academic record of grades, awards, and any publications or special clinical activities. In addition, however, each student is evaluated through more opaque processes within a medical school that speak to the behavior, character, and developing professionalism observed throughout the 4 year curriculum. In the process of choosing a medical student for residency, these non-academic factors may play a significant role in determining the best match between student and program. Three aspects of the non-academic record of the student are presented: the Interview; the Dean’s Letter; and other Affective Domain Issues showing the lack of systematic study of these variables and the degree of difficulty in ferreting out information germane to the residency selection process. Nevertheless, information can be gleaned from careful interviewing and examination of information provided by the medical school to more fully assess each student. The most challenging task is to distinguish between behavior associated with the process of maturation and that associated with significant psychopathology.

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