A. Compression

(NOTE: posterior soft tissue must be intact even if there is some posterior element fracture)

  • A1: Wedge
  • A2: Split or coronal
  • A3: Burst

B. Distraction

  • B1: Distraction of the posterior soft tissues (subluxation)
  • B2: Distraction of the posterior arch (Chance fracture)
  • B3: Distraction of the anterior disc (extension spondylolysis)

C. Multi-directional with translation

  • C1: Anterior-posterior (dislocation)
  • C2: Lateral (lateral shear)
  • C3: Rotational (rotational burst)


Provide an explanation for key principles and pertinent aspects of the classification


Insert figures illustrating the classification


Provide the citation for the landmark article and recent review articles describing the classification